Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (58):
1) What are the functions of the external nose?
modifying speech vibrations
2) What are the functions of the internal nose?
receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses
3) What happens to air as it enters the nasal passage and where does olfaction take place?
not olfactory epithelium lies in mucous membrane covering inferior nasal conchae
4) What is the pharynx?
tube lines with a muscle membrane
5) Which portion of the pharynx communicates with the internal nares and Eustachian tubes?
8) What are the laryngeal cartilages and how do they function?
epiglottis: single cartiliage blocks food and liquid from entering the larynx
9) How do the vocal cords alter pitch?
adjusting tension on VC and changing rima glottis shape alters pitch
10) What is the trachea and how does it function?
A + B
11) What are he C-shaped rings of the trachea and how do they function?
12) What is the function of the primary bronchi?
carry air toward each lung
13) Cassie was practicing her gymnastics floor exercise while chewing gum. During a disastrous attempt at a new flip, she accidentally inhaled the gum. Where did the gum probably lodge?
right primary broncus
14) What are the airways that directly carry air to each lobe of a lung?
15) As the diameters of the respiratory passages decrease, what can be observed in its anatomy?
walls of the passages become more muscular
16) A patient is having an asthma attack and can hardly breathe. What should probably be administered to the patient? Why?
A + B
17) What is the difference between the visceral pleura parietal pleura?
visceral pleura adheres directly to the chest wall
18) What makes up the respiratory membrane?
not lymphatic vessel basement membrane
19) What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?
20) What are the basic steps of gas exchange, or respiration, in the body?
21) What is exhalation (expiration)?
A + B
22) A 70 year-old patient suffering from emphysema comes down with pneumonia, and his alveoli begin to fill with fluid. How will his illnesses affect his pulmonary ventilation?
emphysema will decrease lung compliance
23) Lauren has a tidal volume of 520 mL with an anatomical dead space of 120 mL. If she is to maintain an alveolar ventilation rate of 4000 mL/min, what must her respiration rate be?
10 breaths per minute
24) What is Dalton’s law, not Megan?
A + B
25) What is Henry’s law?
26) What is external respiration?
exchange of gases between lungs and blood
27) What happens during internal respiration?
gases are exchanged between blood and tissues
28) What factors are essential in the rate of gas exchange?
Not volume of gas available
29) What is the most important factor in determining whether O2 dissociates from or binds to hemoglobin?
30) What will increase O2 dissociation from hemoglobin?
increased BPG concentration
31) How is CO2 transported in blood?
32) What affects the amount of CO2 that can be transported in blood?
the amount of co2 that can be transported by the amount of Hb-O2 **
33) When running 100 m, which part of the brain stem stimulates the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles to contract causing forceful exhalation?
expiratory area of the medulla oblongata
34) Other than those in the brain stem, which parts of the brain can influence respiratory rate and depth?
35) What are chemoreceptors and how do they effect respiration?
in the medullla oblongata, detect changes in h^2 and C02 concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid
36) It has been one of those mornings for Kate. First the hot water went off suddenly in the middle of her shower. When she tried to get out of the ice-cold water quickly, she stubbed her toe on the edge of the shower stall, fell and hit her “funny bone” on the toilet. When she checked her blood pressure, it was 150/100 instead of her usual 90/60. What common response did her respiratory system probably have to each of these situations?
A or B
37) What is true of changes in ventilation associated with exercise?
pulmonary perfusion increases during exercise
38) When does the respiratory system begin to develop?
about four weeks after conception
39) What is associated with aging of the respiratory system?
not increased alveolar macrophage activity
40) What are classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders?
A + B
41) Which is an inherited disease of the respiratory system?
42) Pulmonary edema maybe characterized by what?
not decreased fluid in alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs
43) What filters, warms, and moistens air entering body?
44) What serves as sound resonating chamber, contains tonsils, directs air inferiorly?
45) What passes air from pharynx into windpipe, site of sound production?
46) What carries air to a lung?
47) What carries air to a segment of a lung?
48) What carries air directly into a respiratory bronchiole?
49) What separates the lungs from each other and from the mediastinum?
50) What reduces surface tension at sites of gas exchange?
absence of oxygen
stop breathing in sleep
a condition arising when the body is deprived of oxygen
excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream
deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.
define lobar pneumonia
pneumonia in one lobe of the lung
inflammation of the pleurae
the presence of air or gas in the cavity between the lungs and the chest wall, causing collapse of the lung.
abnormally rapid breathing.