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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (58):
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1) What are the functions of the external nose?

modifying speech vibrations

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2) What are the functions of the internal nose?

receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses

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3) What happens to air as it enters the nasal passage and where does olfaction take place?

not olfactory epithelium lies in mucous membrane covering inferior nasal conchae

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4) What is the pharynx?

tube lines with a muscle membrane

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5) Which portion of the pharynx communicates with the internal nares and Eustachian tubes?

nasopharynx

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8) What are the laryngeal cartilages and how do they function?

epiglottis: single cartiliage blocks food and liquid from entering the larynx

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9) How do the vocal cords alter pitch?

adjusting tension on VC and changing rima glottis shape alters pitch

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10) What is the trachea and how does it function?

A + B

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11) What are he C-shaped rings of the trachea and how do they function?

all

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12) What is the function of the primary bronchi?

carry air toward each lung

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13) Cassie was practicing her gymnastics floor exercise while chewing gum. During a disastrous attempt at a new flip, she accidentally inhaled the gum. Where did the gum probably lodge?

right primary broncus

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14) What are the airways that directly carry air to each lobe of a lung?

secondary bronchi

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15) As the diameters of the respiratory passages decrease, what can be observed in its anatomy?

walls of the passages become more muscular

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16) A patient is having an asthma attack and can hardly breathe. What should probably be administered to the patient? Why?

A + B

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17) What is the difference between the visceral pleura parietal pleura?

visceral pleura adheres directly to the chest wall

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18) What makes up the respiratory membrane?

not lymphatic vessel basement membrane

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19) What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?

all

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20) What are the basic steps of gas exchange, or respiration, in the body?

all

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21) What is exhalation (expiration)?

A + B

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22) A 70 year-old patient suffering from emphysema comes down with pneumonia, and his alveoli begin to fill with fluid. How will his illnesses affect his pulmonary ventilation?

emphysema will decrease lung compliance

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23) Lauren has a tidal volume of 520 mL with an anatomical dead space of 120 mL. If she is to maintain an alveolar ventilation rate of 4000 mL/min, what must her respiration rate be?

10 breaths per minute

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24) What is Dalton’s law, not Megan?

A + B

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25) What is Henry’s law?

all

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26) What is external respiration?

exchange of gases between lungs and blood

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27) What happens during internal respiration?

gases are exchanged between blood and tissues

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28) What factors are essential in the rate of gas exchange?

Not volume of gas available

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29) What is the most important factor in determining whether O2 dissociates from or binds to hemoglobin?

Po2

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30) What will increase O2 dissociation from hemoglobin?

increased BPG concentration

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31) How is CO2 transported in blood?

all

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32) What affects the amount of CO2 that can be transported in blood?

the amount of co2 that can be transported by the amount of Hb-O2 **

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33) When running 100 m, which part of the brain stem stimulates the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles to contract causing forceful exhalation?

expiratory area of the medulla oblongata

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34) Other than those in the brain stem, which parts of the brain can influence respiratory rate and depth?

all

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35) What are chemoreceptors and how do they effect respiration?

in the medullla oblongata, detect changes in h^2 and C02 concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid

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36) It has been one of those mornings for Kate. First the hot water went off suddenly in the middle of her shower. When she tried to get out of the ice-cold water quickly, she stubbed her toe on the edge of the shower stall, fell and hit her “funny bone” on the toilet. When she checked her blood pressure, it was 150/100 instead of her usual 90/60. What common response did her respiratory system probably have to each of these situations?

A or B

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37) What is true of changes in ventilation associated with exercise?

pulmonary perfusion increases during exercise

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38) When does the respiratory system begin to develop?

about four weeks after conception

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39) What is associated with aging of the respiratory system?

not increased alveolar macrophage activity

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40) What are classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders?

A + B

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41) Which is an inherited disease of the respiratory system?

cystic fibrosis

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42) Pulmonary edema maybe characterized by what?

not decreased fluid in alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs

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43) What filters, warms, and moistens air entering body?

nose

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44) What serves as sound resonating chamber, contains tonsils, directs air inferiorly?

pharynx

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45) What passes air from pharynx into windpipe, site of sound production?

larynx

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46) What carries air to a lung?

primary broncus

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47) What carries air to a segment of a lung?

tertiary broncus

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48) What carries air directly into a respiratory bronchiole?

terminal bronchioli

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49) What separates the lungs from each other and from the mediastinum?

pleural membrane

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50) What reduces surface tension at sites of gas exchange?

syrphactant

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define anoxia

absence of oxygen

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define apnea

stop breathing in sleep

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define asphyxia

a condition arising when the body is deprived of oxygen

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define hypercapnia

excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream

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define hypoxia

deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.

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define lobar pneumonia

pneumonia in one lobe of the lung

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define pleurisy

inflammation of the pleurae

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define pneumothorax

the presence of air or gas in the cavity between the lungs and the chest wall, causing collapse of the lung.

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define tachypnea

abnormally rapid breathing.

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define tracheotomy

an incision in the windpipe made to relieve an obstruction to breathing.