Chapters 19-21 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapters 19-21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 19-21 Deck (70):
1

1) What is the function of blood?

Not promote blood loss

2

2) What constitutes plasma?

Not formed elements

3

3) What cells are found in the blood?

erythrocytes and leukocytes

4

4) What hematocrit value indicates that a patient has polycythemia?

62%

5

5) A patient suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus has renal and hepatic damage. How might that damage
affect her blood?

her kidneys may not make enough EPO, causing her to be anemic, her liver may not make enough TPC causing her to bleed more profusely. (A + B)

6

6) What is the shape of RBCs?

NOT RBC's have a spherical shape

7

7) What constitutes hemoglobin?

has an Fe2+ at the center of its heme group

8

8) What does hemoglobin do?

transports most of the O2 and about 23% of the CO2 between the tisseus and the lungs

9

9) When hemoglobin is recycled, what happens to the heme group?

it is converted to bilirudin and then bilirubin* (C)

10

10) What is erythropoiesis and how does it relate to RBC destruction?

normally keeps pace with RBC destruction

11

11) How are white blood cells classified?

include the granulocytes, eosinophils, basophils, *
(A and B are correct)

12

12) Two doctors, trained in different decades and different parts of the country, call the critical care nurses’ station
and ask for a report on a patient’s blood work. One doctor is particularly interested in the patient’s “segs” and the
other in the patient’s “PMNs”. Both want to know about “bands”. The experienced, well-educated R.N. answering
the calls knows what ?

(A, B, and C are correct)

13

13) What are platelets and what do they do?

(A, B, and C are correct)

14

14) Stem cells for blood formation may be harvested from where?

(A, B, and C are correct)

15

15) What are the advantages of harvesting stem cells from cord-blood?

(A, B, and C are correct)

16

16) What is hemostasis?

(all of the above)

17

17) What is the mechanism that prevents excessive blood clotting?

Not presence of vitamin k blocks the plateled adhesion and release

18

18) What is intravascular blood clotting called?

results in formation of a thrombus

19

19) What are blood groups based on?

the presence of inherited antigens on the surface of erythrocytes

20

20) Jason has circulating anti-B, but not anti-A, antibodies. Which blood type does he have?

A (A)

21

21) Liz has no circulating anti-A, anti-B or anti-D antibodies. What is his blood type?

AB negative (B)

22

22) What is anemia and what can cause it?

condition in which the ability of the blood to carry oxygen decreases, may be caused by defecient amounts of iron in the diet (A + B)

23

23) Which of type of anemia is inherited?

sickle cell anemia

24

24) What happens in leukemia?

produces large number of abnormal leukocytes

25

25) Where is the heart located?

lies within the medius stenum

26

26) What is the pericardium and what does it do?

anchors heart to the diaphragm

27

27) What makes up the heart wall?

consists largely of a middle layer of muscle tissue called the myocardium which performs the pump

28

28) What is normally observed on the external surface of the heart?

series of sulci that contain coronary blood bvessels and variable amount of fat

29

29) How do each of the cardiac valves function?

A + C

30

30) Why doesn’t a significant amount of blood flow back into the vena cavae and coronary sinus during atrial
contraction?

the contraction of the atria compresses and closes the venaes openings

31

31) What is the correct sequence of parts through which blood flows as it moves lower body to the to the left
atrium?

Not 2

32

32) What supplies the heart with nutrient and oxygen rich blood?

Not great cardiac vein

33

33) What is the primary pacemaker of the heart?

SA node

34

34) What is the proper order of the propagation of a cardiac action potential?

2,5,4,3,1

35

35) What does an electrocardiogram detect?

all

36

36) The QRS complex of the ECG is associated with what?

ventricular depolorization

37

37) What is single cardiac cycle?

includes all of the events associated with one heart beat

38

38) What makes heart sounds?

results of teh cardiac valves closing

39

39) What is cardiac output?

products of the stroke volume and heart rate

40

40) A patient has pulmonary edema but not peripheral edema. Which of the following is probably true of the
patient’s heart?

left ventricle is failing

41

41) What chemical(s) will slow heart rate and decrease cardiac output?

ACH (Acetylcholine)

42

42) How does regular exercise relate to heart rate?

reduces resting heart rate

43

43) What is the relationship between exercise and the heart?

cardiovascular

44

44) What are the risk factors for coronary artery disease?

NOT regular aerobic exercises

45

45) What is a myocardial infarction?

interrupted blood supply, myocardial cells die

46

46) How do arteries function and how are they arranged?

(A, B, and C are correct)

47

47) Where are the sites of exchange between the blood and the tissues?

capillaries

48

48) The blood vessels that drain blood directly from the capillary beds are what?

venules

49

49) Which part of the arterial wall contains smooth muscle?

tunica media

50

50) Which blood vessels play a key role in regulating blood distribution and pressure because their diameters may
be easily and rapidly adjusted?

arterioles

51

51) What do capillaries do and how do they form?

form more extensice beds in tissues that have greater metabolic rates

52

52) What are venules and what do they do?

(A, B, and C are correct)

53

53) What are veins and what do they do?

carry blood toward the heart

54

54) Starting with the heart, what is the sequence of the flow of blood through the various vessels?

heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
1,5,4,3,6,2
(D)

55

55) Which blood vessels act as blood reservoirs?

veins and venules

56

56) What happens to some of the fluid that leaks out of blood vessels?

some of the fluid that leaks out of a capillary is reabosrbed into lymphatic vessels.

57

57) What is blood pressure, how is it produced and what is considered normal?

NOT blood pressure is generated by the contraction of the atria

58

58) What is mean arterial pressure (MAP)?

average pressure in arteries

59

59) After a frightening experience is over, how does the cardiovascular center return heart rate and blood pressure
to normal values?

by decreasing sympathetic impulses sent through the cardiac accelerator nerve, by increasing parasympathetic impluses sent through the vagus nerve (A, and B are correct)

60

60) Increased secretion of which hormones would decrease blood pressure?

atrial natriupetic peptide - ANP
(B)

61

61) What is a pulse?

(A, B, and C are correct)

62

62) What are the two main circulatory routes?

pulmonary and systemic circulations

63

63) What is systemic circulation?

returns oxygen depleted blood to the right atrium via the vena cavae or the coronary sinus (B)

64

64) The right and left coronary arteries are branches of what?

ascending aorta

65

65) The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) receives blood from what?

vertebral arteries via the basilar artery, internal carotid arteries ( A and B are correct)

66

66) If the radial artery was damaged, blood could still reach the hand via the what?

ulnar artery

67

67) What are the branches of the abdominal aorta?

NOT esophageal artery

68

68) How does blood from the inferior sagittal sinus return to the heart?

internal jugular vein, subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, heart
(D)

69

69) The vein that connects the right brachial vein to the right subclavian vein is what?

right axillary vein

70

70) What are some of the anticipated effects of aging on the cardiovascular system?

NOT increased compliance of blood vessels*