Chapters 26-27 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapters 26-27 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 26-27 Deck (74):
1

What are the components of the urinary system?

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urethra
(all of the above)

2

What are the functions of the kidneys?

Not the storage of urine

3

What waste products are normally secreted by the kidneys

Not glucose

4

Where are the kidneys located

retroperitoneal and attached to the posterior abdominal wall

5

Which blood vessels supply the kidneys

renal arteries

6

6) Renal nerves are made up of what kind of nerves?

mostly vasomotor nerves

7

7) What are the nephrons?

functional units of the kidneys

8

8) What makes up the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and glomerular capsule

9

9) What is the order that a molecule of water would ordinarily pass through in the nephron?

glomerulus, glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, descending loop of henle, ascending loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, papillary duct, (4,6,8,2,5,7,1,3)

10

10) What is the first step in urine production?

occurs as water and solutes more from the glomerulus to the glomerular capsule

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11) What is the rate of urinary excretion of any solute equal to?

equal to (rate of glomelular filtration) + (rate of secretion) - (rate of reabsorption)

12

12) What makes up the filtration membrane?

glomerular epithelial cells, basil lamina, between the pedicels of podocytes, (most likely all of the above)

13

13) What can ordinarily cross the filtration membrane?

Not platelets

14

14) Why is the volume of fluid filtered by the renal corpuscle much larger than the volume exiting other capillaries of the body?

a large surface are for exchange is presented by the glomerular capillaries

15

15) What mechanisms control glomerular filtration?

renal autoregulation, neural control, hormonal control

16

16) What does the myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation do?

normalizes renal blood flow and GFR in response to change in blood pressure

17

17) Methamphetamine mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. How would a high dose of this substance probably affect the kidneys?

afferent arterioles will constrict, blood flow to glomerular capillaries will decrease, GFR will decrease, urine output will decrease

18

18) How much water is returned by tubular reabsorption?

returns 99% of the water filtered from the glomerulus to the blood

19

19) Which substances are ordinarily secreted from the blood and tubular cells into tubular fluid?

Not glucose

20

20) What does the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) use to reabsorb glucose and amino acides?

uses sodium supporters to reabsorb glucose and amino acids

21

21) What is reabsorbed by the loop of Henle?

sodium, potassium, calcium, HCO3 and chlorine

22

22) The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is the major site for what action of PTH?

where PTH stimulates reabsorption of calcium

23

23) The collecting ducts receive what percentage of water and what kind of cells does it contain?

receives only 5-10% of the water and solutes that initially filtered out of the glomerulus, contains principal and intercolateral cells

24

24) Which hormones directly impacts water reabsorption but not Na+ reabsorption?

ADH

25

25) The most important hormonal regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion are what?

aldoseterone and antiotension II

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26) What would be a likely consequence if patient suffering from renal damage cannot release sufficient quantities of renin?

(all of the above)

27

27) The hormone with the most important role in regulating Na+ and K+ balance is what?

aldosterone

28



28) A very busy nurse working at the end of his third 12 hour shift in a row made two bad mistakes with the same patient. First, he forgot to double-check the label on I.V. solution he was hanging to make sure it matched the order for the patient. Then he forgot tocheck the setting on the I.V. pump. The patient received a liter of hypertonic fluid in less than 15 minutes instead of receiving the same volume of the ordered isotonic fluid in 2 hours. How will the patient’s body attempt to compensate for the nurse’s mistakes?

the patient will secrete more ANP so that more sodium and water can be secreted and into the urine

29

29) Why does the osmolarity of tubular fluid decrease as it passes through the ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct?

the LOH and bTC reabsorb solutues and dilute the fluid entering the collecting ducts

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30) What factors create the osmotic gradient that enables ADH to cause formation of concentrated urine?

(all of the above)

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31) What happens to the concentration as tubular fluid flows up the ascending loop of Henle?

concentration decreases

32

32) What are the normal constituents of urine?

Not protein

33

33) Which tests are most beneficial in evaluating kidney function?

renal plasma clearance

34

34) What are the ureters and how do they function?

Not seperated from the urinary bladder by an anatomical valve

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35) What kind of muscle is found in the wall of the urinary bladder?

detrussor muscle which consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle tissue

36

36) What is micturition and how does it function?

involves contraction of the detrussor muscle and relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter

37

37) What is the function of the urethra?

(all of the above)

38

38) Which body parts excrete heat, CO2, and water?

GI tract, sweat glands, lungs

39

39) Which pair of kidneys remains functional after birth?

metanephrons

40

40) Age related changes in the urinary system include what?

Not increased kdney size

41

41) What are the 8-18 cone shaped structures found in the inner core of each kidney?

renal pyramids

42

42) What are the extensions of the renal cortex between the renal pyramids?

renal columns

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43) What consists of a renal pyramid, its overlying area of renal cortex, and one-half of each adjacent renal column?

renal lobe

44

44) What delivers blood to the glomerulus?

afferent arteriole

45

45) What is the capillary network where filtration occurs?

glomerulus

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46) What drains blood from the glomerulus?

efferent arteriole

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47) What structure is found between the glomerular capsule and loop of Henle; is a major site of H2O reabsorption; and is made up of simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli?

proximal convoluted tubule

48

48) What structure receives filtrateand has a visceral layer that contains podocytes?

glomerular capsule

49

49) What is found between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct and is relatively impermeable to water?

distal convoluted dubule

50

50) What contractile cells are found between glomerular capillaries and help to regulate filtration?

mesangial cells

51

51) What makes up body fluids?

A + B

52

52) What is extracellular fluid?

(all of the above)

53

53) Where is most of the extracellular fluid located?

interstitial fluid

54

54) Which barriers separate body fluids into different compartments?

intraceullar and extraceullar fluid compartments

55

55) Who normally has the largest percentage of water in his or her body?

infant

56

56) What are sources of water gain?

(all of the above)

57

57) Which body sites and the greatest and least water loss?

(all of the above)

58

58) What happens if water loss exceeds water intake?

(all of the above)

59

59) What does ADH do?

regulates waterloss

60

60) What stimulates increased ADH release?

vomiting, diahreaa, excessive perspiration

61


61) Taking a dare, a student drank 4 L (over a gallon) of water in less than 10 minutes. How will the student’s body compensate for this increased fluid volume?

renin secretion stopped, ADH levels would drop, kidneys will produce dilute urine quickly

62

62) What are electrolytes and how do they function?

carry electrical current, control movement of water, maintain acid-base balance

63

63) Which electrolytes are found in higher concentrations in intracellular fluid than in extracellular fluid?

potassium, HPO4, SO4

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64) What do sodium ions (Na+) do?

contribute 1/2 of osmolarity of extracellular fluid

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65) What do chloride ions (Cl-) do?

follow movement of sodium ions

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66) What do potassium ions (K+) do?

most abundant cations in intraceullar fluid, critical for establishing resting membrane potential, maintain fluid balance and PH balance

67

67) Where do bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) come from?

intercolated cells of kidneys, parietal cells of stomach

68

68) Why are calcium ions (Ca2+) important?

blood clotting, neurotransmission

69

69) What do phosphate ions do?

(all of the above)

70

70) What do magnesium ions (Mg2+) do?

regulate the release of PTH

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71) Which electrolytes are important in action potentials and the excitability of nervous and muscle tissue?

sodium, potassium, calcium

72

72) Which ions are directly affected by PTH and calcitriol levels?

sodium, potassium, calcium

73

73) The pH of body fluids is a measurement of the ____ concentration of those fluids.

H+ (hydrogen ion)

74

All of the above #'s

1, 26, 30, 37, 52, 56, 57, 58, 69