Flashcards in Chapters 24-25 Deck (100):
1) What is the general description of the digestive system and does it share organs with other systems??
includes a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, includes organs that food does not actually enter, shares some structures with the respiratory system
2) Hydrolysis of large biological molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed by cells is called what?
3) What makes up the mucosa of the alimentary canal and what does it do?
is composed of three layers: epithelium, lamina propria and the muscularis mucosae which lines the lumen of the alimentary canal
4) During abdominal surgery, immobilization of the patient’s intestines is often desirable. Which of the following types of medications would be most effective at immobilizing the intestines?
an anticholimergic medication
5) What is the peritoneum?
largest serous membrane in the body
6) Where is saliva produced and what does it do?
largely secreted by the parotid, sublinguial and submandibular glands, is rich in amylase, comes primarily from the parotid and submandibular glands, helps moisten food so that it can be swallowed, contains primarily water
7) What muscles are found in the tongue and what are they used for?
contains intrinsic muscles used in speaking and swallowing
8) The remains of a human child are found. There are some deciduous teeth in the jaws, but permanent incisors and 1st molars are clearly present and show some wear. Second molars are barely visible, but show no wear. Based on this evidence, the age of the child at the time of death
can be estimated as older than six years and younger than twelve years
9) A lab group is sent to the cafeteria to do an experiment. The instructions direct each student to obtain a regular saltine cracker and to chew it 25 times before swallowing. The students are to observe and record the initial and final tastes of the cracker. Most students record that the cracker initially tastes salty, but then tastes sweet. Which of the following correctly explains the students’ observations?
the salt on the crackers dissolved rapidly in saliva nad was quickly detected by the taste buds, salivary amylase digested the crackers starch into sugars that could be tasted
10) What is the pharynx?
extends from the internal nares to the esophagus
11) What does the esophagus do?
extends from the inferior end of the pharynx to the stomach, contains skeletal muscle near the pharynx and smooth muscle near the stomach, is lined by a mucous membrane and covered by an adventita
12) What are the functions of the stomach?
Not: serves as a primary absorption site for most nutrients
13) The exit of the stomach, which is sometimes stenosed in infants, is what?
14) An individual suffering from hyposecretion by gastric chief cells would have what condition?
inadequate amounts of pepsinogen and gastric lipase
15) What does HCl production depend on?
on the H+/K+ ATPase pumps in the plasma mebrane of parietal cells, is accompanied by increased release of HCO3 into the interstitial fluid, is stiumulated by Ach gastin and histamine
16) Why doesn’t gastric juice digest the stomach?
the stomach is protected by alkaline mucous membrane, the proteolytic enzyme produced by the stomach is secreted in inactive form
17) What is absorbed by the gastric epithelium?
18) How does the pancreas function and deliver its juices for digestion?
passes pancreatic juice to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct and hepatopancreatic ampulla
19) What is found in pancreatic juice?
20) What does the sodium bicarbonate in pancreatic juice do?
elevates the Ph of chyme, which blocks the action of pepsin, creates favorable conditions for the actions of intestinal enzymes
21) What does the liver make?
22) What is the function of the gallbladder?
concentrates and stores bile
23) What is found in bile?
contains water, bile salts, bile pigments, ile acids, cholesterol, lecithen and ions
24) What do hepatocytes do?
Not: convert bileverdin to hemoglobin
25) What homeostatic disturbances might result from liver failure?
decreased ability to maintain normal blood glucose levels
26) What makes up the small intestine and what does it do?
major sight of digestion and absorption, consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ilium, has villi, and microvilli that increase its surface area for absoprtion, contains circualr folds that increase surface area and absorption.
27) Which substrates are digested by which brush border enzymes?
carbohydrate: adextrinase, maltase, lactase, sucrase,
Protein: aminopeptidase, dipeptidase
Nucleotide: nucelosidases, phosphatases
28) Which enzyme digests triglycerides?
Not: pancreatic amylase
29) What substances are absorbed across the epithelium of the small intestine?
30) Which substances are absorbed via some form of active transport?
Not: Fatty acids
31) What are the functions of the large intestine?
completion of absorption, productino of certain vitamins, formation of feces, elimination of feces.
32) What is the order of the structures in which chyme and, ultimately, feces pass through?
ileocecal valve, cecum, asending colon, transverse colon, desceinding colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
33) What do the bacteria in the large intestine do?
ferment any carbohydtates left in chyme and release H2, CO2 and CH4 gases, convert any amino acids left in chyme into simpler substances, decomposes biliruben to simpler pigments such as stereobilin, synthesize some B vitamins and Vitamin K.
34) What forms the primitive gut in the embryo?
epithelium of most of the digestive tract
35) What are some of the expected age-related changes in the digestive system?
decreased secretory mechanusms, decreased smooth muscle tone, decreased motility
36) What is the process that releases fecal material through the anus?
37) What is the process when digested molecules enter into epithelial cells lining the intestinal lumen?
38) What is the process called that moves materials through GI tract, mostly via peristalsis?
39) What structure contains adipose tissue and lymph nodes; can move to sequester an inflamed appendix?
40) What structure aids mesentery in anchoring intestines while allowing them some mobility; contains lymphatic and blood vessels?
41) Which teeth are chisel-shaped?
42) What are the visible parts of teeth that show when a person smiles?
43) What are the teeth with pointed surfaces; deciduous versions tear and shred food; permanent versions crush and grind food?
44) Which stomach cells produce intrinsic factor and HCl?
45) Which stomach cells produce gastrin?
46) Which pancreatic cells produce digestive enzymes?
47) Which enzyme is not synthesized by the pancreas, but is required to convert trypsinogen to trypsin?
48) Which pancreatic enzyme converts starch to sugar?
49) Which pancreatic enzyme converts triglycerides to fatty acids?
50) What is the longest part of small intestine and absorbs water and nutrients?
51) What is the fate of a food molecule absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract?
52) What is the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body called?
53) What is true of catabolism?
not forming peptide bond
54) What is true of anabolism?
55) The most frequently used “energy currency” molecule of the cell is WHAT?
56) What is true about the energy released during catabolic reactions?
40% of it is directly used, making cell effiecency the highest in all reactions
57) What is the fate of glucose in the human body?
not cell wall syntehssis
58) Which reactions are part of the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP?
59) What is glycolysis and what is the outcome?
results in the gain of 2 ATP molecules
60) What happens to pyruvic acid when O2 levels change?
Not interic acid* enters mitochondrial matrix where it is converted to (acedomeno-something)
61) What is the Kreb’s cycle, or citric acid cycle and what is produced?
62) During cellular respiration of just one glucose molecule what process generates the most ATP molecules?
chemeosmosis generates most ATP
63) How is excess glucose stored in liver and muscle cells?
64) When glucose levels are low, glucagon and cortisol can stimulate production of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources by a process called what?
65) What makes up lipoproteins?
outer layer of a protein, phospholipids, and cholesterol, contain triglicerides and other lipds and their cores.
66) Which lipoprotein delivers cholesterol to the cells for repair of cell membranes?
67) What happens when blood cholesterol level rise?
Not heart disease rises
68) What are the essential fatty acids?
linoleic acids and linoelic acid (A+B)
69) What makes up triglycerides?
3 glyceral molecules joined to one fatty acid
70) What is lipogenesis?
excess glucose and amino acids and fatty acids "fat forming"*
71) Acetone has a distinct smell, which many people associate with the smell of nail polish remover. What might the smell of acetone in the urine or on the breath of a patient indicate?
diabetes mellitus, breaking down fats instead of carbs for energy
72) What role does protein serve in the body?
73) What is protein catabolism?
recycles amino acids from damaged cells
74) Amino acids released through protein catabolism may undergo what?
deaminated *something something* before entering creb sycle, converted into other glucose
75) Where does protein anabolism occur?
76) Which hormones stimulate protein synthesis?
77) What are the essential amino acids ?
78) What do complete proteins contain?
all essential amino acids
79) Which body system can only safely use glucose for energy?
80) Two hours ago, a student ate enchiladas, rice and beans for lunch. Which of the following is true of this student’s metabolism?
primary hormone metabolism insulin
81) A hiker slipped and fell into a ravine two days ago. She was injured during the fall and is unable to climb out on her own. She hasn’t eaten since she fell. Which hormones are involved in mobilizing her energy reserves?
82) What are the effects of starvation?
increased ketone body formation
83) What is the normal body temperature?
not 37 C
84) What are some of the factors that decrease heat production?
increased age, etc**
85) What activities can result in a high metabolic rate?
breast feeding woman
86) Which of part of the brain regulates body temperature, appetite and thirst?
87) What are the satiety signals?
not decreased bAlood glucose
88) What are nutrients, mineral and vitamins?
89) What are the mineral (ion) functions in the body?
iron compound of hemoglobin and cytocarones
90) What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
calcium ion (Ca2+)
91) What fat-soluble vitamin is necessary for vision and for healthy skin?
92) Which water-soluble vitamin is necessary for DNA synthesis, normal blood cell production and the prevention of neural tube defects?
93) What metabolic process losses of electrons?
94) What is an example of synthesis reactions?
95) What is sum of all chemical reactions in the body called?
96) Complete oxidation of C6H12O6 to H2O + CO2 is known as what?
97) Conversion of one C6H12O6 to two pyruvic acid molecules is what process?
98) A series of reactions that transfers energy from FADH2 and NADH to ATP is called what?
electron transport chain
99) Synthesis of triglycerides from glucose and fatty acids is called what?