Flashcards in Chapters 1-2 Deck (100):
What is the study of physiology
Science that deals With the function of an organism or its parts
What is the study of anatomy?
The structure of the body and its relation of its parts to each other
What is the relationship between structure and function
The structure of a part of a body often reflects its functions
What is a histologist?
A person who studies the microscopic study of the structure of tissues
What are the levels of the organization of the human body
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
What is a cell
The basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals
What is an organ
Structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues
What is metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
What regulates body homeostasis
The nervous system and the endocrine system
What is thermogenesis
A processwhen muscle tissue contracts and produces heat.
Assessment of body structure and function by touching body surfaces with the hand.
What are the characteristics of life?
What is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
what is involved in the differentiation of embryonic mesenchymal cells in forming the skeleton?
what is involved in post morterm examination or autipsy
can uncover existence of diseases, extent of injuries, and how a person may have died
what is homeostasis?
the condition of (equilibrium) balance in the body's internal environment due to the constant infraction of the body's many regulatory processes
whats considered to be the body's "internal environment" when discussing homeostasis?
what makes up extra cellular fluid?
fluid outside body cells
what makes up a feedback system?
status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated and so on
if a response enhances the original stimulus, the system is classified as a what kind of feedback system?
what conditions will make it difficult to maintain homeostasis?
overexposure to temperature extremes
what are the sign of infection?
swelling or rash, fever, high blood pressure, paralysis
-enlargement of the liver
what are some of the typical symptoms of disease
headache nausea anxiety
what would be an example of a local disease
diagnosis of a disease usually involves what?
patients symptoms or signs, medical history, physical exam, lab tests
what is the correct anatomical position
eyes face forward
upper limbs at sides
palms face forward
feet flat on floor
axillary refers to what>
popliteal refers to what?
hollow behind knee
cephalic refers to what?
back of lower leg
a plane or section that divides an organ such that you could view an inferior surface of the section of that organ would be a
a mid saggital plan divides the body into
equal left and right sides
away from the head or toward the lower part of the structure
toward the head or upper part of a structure
what is the relationship between the right plantar region and the right femoral region?
the right plantar region is distal to the right femoral region
what is the relationship between the spine and the lungs
spine is lateral to lungs
which structures are superior and lateral to the oral region, posterior, inferior and lateral to the ocular regions and posterior and lateral to the nasal region
what is found in the ventral cavity
the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
what is located in the pelvic cavity
what does the cranial cavity contain?
pineal and hypophysis cerebri,
parts of the cranial and spinal nerves
what lines the abdominal cavity
what is located in the mediastinum
chest portion of trachea
what produces a sonogram
high frequency waves are produced
which medical imaging techniques would be best to use in assessing the rapid growth of a child
what makes up a sensory nerve ending
what is the primary function of the brain or spinal cord?
tell the body what to do? unknown
what is an effector?
an organ or cell that acts in response to stimulus
what are the carpals
bones found in the hand
the front of the elbow is called what
what does the term manual refer to?
ocular refers to what?
the four elements that make up 96% of the body's mass are represented by what symbols
Which elements have ionic forms critical to muscle contraction and action potential generation?
calcium potassium sodium
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of an element is the:
Which subatomic particles carry a negative charge?
55. An atom of one element is distinguished from an atom of another element by the number of:
What are isotopes?
Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers
A physician suspects a patient may have a thyroid tumor. Which radioisotopes will help the physician confirm the initial diagnosis?
What is an ion and why?
An Atom that has a positive or negative charge, because it has unequal numbers of protons and electrons
What is true of the chemical formula, H2O2?
It has a oxygen-oxygen single covalent bond
Four atoms sharing electrons
What is a compound?
A substance that containers atoms of two or more different elements
Do atoms tend to react so that they acquire eight electrons in their outermost shell?
What are ionic compounds?
A compound held together by electrical attraction
What kind of chemical bond is found between two oxygen atoms?
double nonpolar covalent
What compounds are polar covalent?
Explain hydrogen bonds.
When a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms
What must happen in order for a chemical reaction to take place?
The bonds between atoms break
The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body is called
How does potential and kinetic energy operate in chemical reactions?
Potential energy is the energy that is stored and when a chemical reaction takes place the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy
The breakdown of glucose by enzymes
The kinetic energy needed to break the chemical bonds in reactant molecules is called
What influences the rate of a chemical reaction?
when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms
The function of a catalyst is to:
to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed
How does a catalyst function?
it lowers the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
What are examples of anabolic reactions in the body?
muscle development and bone growth
The body converts starch to glucose, which is then ultimately to converted to CO2, H2O, and energy. These
Catabolic and ex.
Give examples of an exchange reaction?
What are inorganic molecules?
they only have a few atoms and cannot be used by cells to perform complicated biological functions
CO2 and HCO3- are considered inorganic compounds even though they each contain a carbon atom. Based on this
observation, how could the definition of an inorganic compound best be modified?
They contain no chains
The most abundant and important inorganic compound found in living systems is
Hydrophilic solutes are those that:
are charged or contain polar covalent bonds which means they dissolve easily in water
Why is water so critical to the body?
its polarity makes it an excellent solvent
gives water molecules cohesion and allows water to resist temp changes
What is an acid?
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions
What is a salt?
when dissolved in water dissociates into cations and anions
What body fluids are alkaline, and which are acidic?
acidic: vaginal fluid, saliva
alkaline: blood, urine, semen, cerebral spinal fluid, pancreatic juice, bile
What does pH measure?
the acidity or alkalinity of a certain object or fluid
What are buffers?
chemical compounds that can convert strong acids into weak acids by removing or adding protons
A common buffer found in extracellular fluid is
Specific arrangements of atoms that cause organic molecules to have particular chemical properties are called
What is the difference between organic and inorganic substances?
inorganic usually lack carbon and organic always contain carbon
What are carbohydrates?
source of chemical energy in the form of ATP, sugars, glycogen, starches, and cellulose
91. An example of a polysaccharide stored in humans is
92. What is true of lipids?
do not have 2:1 ratio of hydogen; proportion of electronegative oxygen atoms is smaller; fewer covalent bonds; hydrophobic
-do not dissolve freely in blood
Glycerol is the backbone molecule for:
A fatty acid with only single covalent bonds is said to be:
Enzymes and antibodies are examples of
In proteins, the folding of the unit on itself is referred to its
What are enzymes?
catalysts of specific reactions within the body
What doe nucleotides contain?
What is found in RNA?
instructions from genes to guide each cells synthesis of proteins and amino acids