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Flashcards in Chapters 1-2 Deck (100):
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What is the study of physiology

Science that deals With the function of an organism or its parts

1

What is the study of anatomy?

The structure of the body and its relation of its parts to each other

2

What is the relationship between structure and function

The structure of a part of a body often reflects its functions

3

What is a histologist?

A person who studies the microscopic study of the structure of tissues

4

What are the levels of the organization of the human body

Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism

5

What is a cell

The basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals

6

What is an organ

Structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues

7

What is metabolism

The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body

8

What regulates body homeostasis

The nervous system and the endocrine system

9

What is thermogenesis

A processwhen muscle tissue contracts and produces heat.

10

Assessment of body structure and function by touching body surfaces with the hand.

Palpation

11

What are the characteristics of life?

Metabolism
Responsiveness
Movement
Growth
Differentiation
Reproduction

13

What is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

Metabolism

14

what is involved in the differentiation of embryonic mesenchymal cells in forming the skeleton?

Differentiation

15

what is involved in post morterm examination or autipsy

can uncover existence of diseases, extent of injuries, and how a person may have died

16

what is homeostasis?

the condition of (equilibrium) balance in the body's internal environment due to the constant infraction of the body's many regulatory processes

17

whats considered to be the body's "internal environment" when discussing homeostasis?

interstitial fluid

18

what makes up extra cellular fluid?

fluid outside body cells

19

what makes up a feedback system?

status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated and so on

20

if a response enhances the original stimulus, the system is classified as a what kind of feedback system?

positive

21

what conditions will make it difficult to maintain homeostasis?

extreme stress
overexposure to temperature extremes
severe infection
major surgery

22

what are the sign of infection?

swelling or rash, fever, high blood pressure, paralysis

-enlargement of the liver

23

what are some of the typical symptoms of disease

headache nausea anxiety

24

what would be an example of a local disease

sinus infection

25

diagnosis of a disease usually involves what?

patients symptoms or signs, medical history, physical exam, lab tests

26

what is the correct anatomical position

erect,
head level
eyes face forward
upper limbs at sides
palms face forward
feet flat on floor

27

axillary refers to what>

armpit

28

popliteal refers to what?

hollow behind knee

29

cephalic refers to what?
head
neck
back of lower leg
chest
spinal column
???

head

30

a plane or section that divides an organ such that you could view an inferior surface of the section of that organ would be a

transverse plane

31

a mid saggital plan divides the body into

equal left and right sides

32

define inferior

away from the head or toward the lower part of the structure

33

define superior

toward the head or upper part of a structure

34

what is the relationship between the right plantar region and the right femoral region?

the right plantar region is distal to the right femoral region

35

what is the relationship between the spine and the lungs

spine is lateral to lungs

36

which structures are superior and lateral to the oral region, posterior, inferior and lateral to the ocular regions and posterior and lateral to the nasal region

Ears

37

what is found in the ventral cavity

the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

38

what is located in the pelvic cavity

bladder
prostate
ovaries
testes
cervix
penis
colon
anus

39

what does the cranial cavity contain?

brain
pineal and hypophysis cerebri,
parts of the cranial and spinal nerves
blood vessels
meninges
cerebrospinal fluid

40

what lines the abdominal cavity

serous membrane

41

what is located in the mediastinum

heart
aorta
thymus gland
chest portion of trachea
esophagus
lymph nodes

Not: lungs

42

what produces a sonogram

high frequency waves are produced

43

which medical imaging techniques would be best to use in assessing the rapid growth of a child

ultrasound

44

what makes up a sensory nerve ending

Receptor

45

what is the primary function of the brain or spinal cord?

tell the body what to do? unknown

46

what is an effector?

an organ or cell that acts in response to stimulus

47

what are the carpals

bones found in the hand

48

the front of the elbow is called what

antebutial

49

what does the term manual refer to?

unkown

50

ocular refers to what?

the eye

51

the four elements that make up 96% of the body's mass are represented by what symbols

O oxygen
C carbon
H hydrogen
N nitrogen

52

Which elements have ionic forms critical to muscle contraction and action potential generation?

calcium potassium sodium

53

The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of an element is the:

atom

54

Which subatomic particles carry a negative charge?

electrons

55

55. An atom of one element is distinguished from an atom of another element by the number of:

electrons

56

What are isotopes?

Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers

57

A physician suspects a patient may have a thyroid tumor. Which radioisotopes will help the physician confirm the initial diagnosis?

I-131

58

What is an ion and why?

An Atom that has a positive or negative charge, because it has unequal numbers of protons and electrons

59

What is true of the chemical formula, H2O2?

It has a oxygen-oxygen single covalent bond



Four atoms sharing electrons

60

What is a compound?

A substance that containers atoms of two or more different elements

61

Do atoms tend to react so that they acquire eight electrons in their outermost shell?

yes

62

What are ionic compounds?

A compound held together by electrical attraction

63

What kind of chemical bond is found between two oxygen atoms?

double nonpolar covalent

64

What compounds are polar covalent?

H20

65

Explain hydrogen bonds.

When a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms

66

What must happen in order for a chemical reaction to take place?

The bonds between atoms break

67

The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body is called

Metabolism

68

How does potential and kinetic energy operate in chemical reactions?

Potential energy is the energy that is stored and when a chemical reaction takes place the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy

69

Explain glycolysis.

The breakdown of glucose by enzymes

Ex.. process

70

The kinetic energy needed to break the chemical bonds in reactant molecules is called

activation energy

71

What influences the rate of a chemical reaction?

when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms

72

The function of a catalyst is to:

to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed

73

How does a catalyst function?

it lowers the amount of energy needed to start the reaction

74

What are examples of anabolic reactions in the body?

muscle development and bone growth

75

The body converts starch to glucose, which is then ultimately to converted to CO2, H2O, and energy. These

conversions are

Catabolic and ex.

76

Give examples of an exchange reaction?

AB+CD=AD+BC

77

What are inorganic molecules?

they only have a few atoms and cannot be used by cells to perform complicated biological functions

78

CO2 and HCO3- are considered inorganic compounds even though they each contain a carbon atom. Based on this

observation, how could the definition of an inorganic compound best be modified?

They contain no chains

79

The most abundant and important inorganic compound found in living systems is

water

80

Hydrophilic solutes are those that:

are charged or contain polar covalent bonds which means they dissolve easily in water

81

Why is water so critical to the body?

its polarity makes it an excellent solvent
gives water molecules cohesion and allows water to resist temp changes

82

What is an acid?

a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions

83

What is a salt?

when dissolved in water dissociates into cations and anions

84

What body fluids are alkaline, and which are acidic?

acidic: vaginal fluid, saliva
alkaline: blood, urine, semen, cerebral spinal fluid, pancreatic juice, bile

85

What does pH measure?

the acidity or alkalinity of a certain object or fluid
7.39

86

What are buffers?

chemical compounds that can convert strong acids into weak acids by removing or adding protons

87

A common buffer found in extracellular fluid is

bicarbonate ion

88

Specific arrangements of atoms that cause organic molecules to have particular chemical properties are called

functional groups

89

What is the difference between organic and inorganic substances?

inorganic usually lack carbon and organic always contain carbon

90

What are carbohydrates?

source of chemical energy in the form of ATP, sugars, glycogen, starches, and cellulose

91

91. An example of a polysaccharide stored in humans is

glycogen

92

92. What is true of lipids?

do not have 2:1 ratio of hydogen; proportion of electronegative oxygen atoms is smaller; fewer covalent bonds; hydrophobic


-do not dissolve freely in blood

93

Glycerol is the backbone molecule for:

triglyceride

94

A fatty acid with only single covalent bonds is said to be:

saturated fat

95

Enzymes and antibodies are examples of

proteins

96

In proteins, the folding of the unit on itself is referred to its

Tertiary structure

97

What are enzymes?

catalysts of specific reactions within the body

98

What doe nucleotides contain?

DNA

99

What is found in RNA?

instructions from genes to guide each cells synthesis of proteins and amino acids

100

What is true of DNA?


Heredity
Purines
Dioxiribonucleic acid
Piromendines