1) What are the major functions of the brain?
Center of both motor and sensory processing, is the center of emotion, intellect, memory, and behavior (A and B)
2) Which part of the embryonic brain ultimately becomes the cerebrum and lateral ventricles?
3) What are the major parts of the brain?
NOT hypothalamus (E)
4) How do the cranial meninges differ from the spinal meninges?
There is no epidural space between the dura and the bones of the skull. (B)
5) Which blood vessels supply the brain with blood?
Vertebral arteries, internal carotid arteries (A and B)
6) What is true of the adult brain?
It's functions are impaired by even transient interruptions of blood flow (C)
7) What substances can pass the blood-brain barrier?
Let's lipid soluble substances such as O2 CO2 and many anesthetic agents enter the brain (A)
8) What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
Provides some mechanical protection for the Brain (B)
9) How does cerebrospinal fluid pass from the 3rd ventricle into the 4th ventricle?
Through the cerebral aqueduct (C)
10) What makes up the brain stem
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain NOT: diencephalon
11) What takes place in the medulla oblongata?
site docussation* of many motor tracts, is involved in the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure, contains the nuclei for cranial nerves VII through XII (E, All of the above)
12) What is found within the pons?
contains apneustic and pneumotaxic centers that help control breathing (D)
13) What makes up the midbrain?
superior and inferior coliculi, substantial nigra, and red nuclei
14) What does the reticular formation contain?
contains sensory neurons that help maintain consciousness (c)
15) Where is the cerebellum located?
located posterior to the brain stem andinferior to the cerebrum (A)
16) What are functions of the cerebellum?
appears to be involved in cognition, helps maintain posture and balance, helps coordinate actival with intended contractions of skeletal muscles (E, A B and C are correct)
17) What does the thalamus do?
controls motor function, sensory relay station. NOT: gives precise location information for sensations of pain and touch (D)
18) What does the hypothalamus do?
controls and integrates autonomic nervous system activity (C)
19) What does the hypothalamus do?
regulates appetite and thirst (B)
20) What are the major functions of the cerebrum?
is the "thinking part" of the brain (A)
21) A cerebrovascular accident (CVA) specifically damaged a patient’s ability to transfer information from a gyrus in one cerebral hemisphere to the corresponding gyrus in the other hemisphere. Which type of tract was damaged by the CVA?
22) What is the basal ganglia and what does it do?
are collectively called the corpus striatum, are involved in regulating the beinning and ending of a movement (D)
23) What does the limbic system do?
includes structures on the inner wall of the cerebrum, and floor of the diencephalon, is involved in memory, and in the sense of smell, is involved in recognition and display of emotions (E, A B and C are correct)
24) Chronic use of marijuana results in damage to the hippocampus. Which behavior of “pot heads” could be attributed to this damage?
lack of short term memory (A)
25) Association areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in what functions?
memorizing cranial nerve movements such as moving fingers, phraseology, pleasure in learning a new subject, judgement.
26) How do the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex function?
secondary sensory areas help integrate sensory information into meaningful patterns (A)
27) If your nose itches, which primary sensory area receives that information?
28) What are the primary motor areas of the cerebral cortex?
located anterior to the central sulcus, devoted to the fine motor skills, larger than those devoted to gross motor skills (D)
29) A six-year-old is at the edge of the outfield watching jets take off from a nearby military base instead of paying attention to the softball game in which his older sister is playing. A strongly hit softball strikes him in the back of the head with considerable force. Which association area is most likely to be damaged in this accident?
30) What is hemispheric lateralization?
refers to the fact that one side of the cerebrum controls the opposite side of the body, is observable in a 32 week fetus, follows general patterns but varies someone from individual to individual, is less pronounced in females than males (E All of the above)
31) Where do cranial nerves come from and how are they named?
exit or enter the brain through foramina in the skull, are numbered with roman numerals in anterior to posterior order, are named for their distribution or function (E, A B and C are correct)
32) Which cranial nerve is sensory and conducts the nerve impulses for the sense of smell?
i, (A) olfactory
33) What do the optic nerves merge with?
merge to form the optic chlasma (B)
34) What does the trigeminal nerve control?
controls the muscles of mastication
35) Which cranial nerve stimulates the zygomaticus major causing you to smile? A) III B) IV C) V +D) VII
VII (E) facial nerve
36) A cerebrovascular accident has made it difficult for a patient to swallow. Which cranial nerve was probably damaged?
IX (A) glossopharyngeal nerve
37) What do the autonomic neurons of the vagus nerve innervate?
intestines, respiratory, heart NOT: the pharynx (C)
38) What is associated with aging of the brain from early adulthood onward?
increased reflex times (C)
39) How does the autonomic nervous system function?
contractions of smooth and cardiac muscles; secretion of many glands, and operates via reflex arcs
40) What are the characteristics of the somatic nervous system?
SNS; 1 motor neuron in motor pathway, controlled by cerebral cortex
41) Where does the autonomic nervous system get its input and what is true of its motor pathways?
interceptors, motor pathways, 2 motor neurons synapse at ganglion
42) What regulates the autonomic functions?
limbic system; hypothalamus; brain stem
43) What are examples of an autonomic response?
increase in heart rate, dilated pupils, blood vessels constricting
44) Organs that have dual innervation receive motor impulses from where?
SNS and PNS
45) What is true of a preganglionic fiber?
46) What is found in a parasympathetic preganglionic neuron?
cell body in lateral grey horn, nucleus of cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X
47) What are parasympathetic ganglia?
48) What is found in autonomic plexuses?
49) Which autonomic plexus controls the largest variety of organs?
50) Which autonomic plexus supplies the kidneys?
51) Which characteristic of sympathetic preganglionic fibers allows them to control most structures in the body simultaneously?
many colllateral axon synapse with postganglionic neurons
52) What are splanchnic nerves?
arise from preganglionic fibers, contain pre-fibers, do not synapse, terminate in prevertebral ganglia
53) How does the adrenal medullae develop what does it produce, and what its similarities with nervous tissue?
arise from same tissue as sympatic ganglia, release neuroepinephrine, dopamine into the blood stream, cells are similar to sympathetic post ganglionic neurons
54) A tumor in a patient’s adrenal medulla causes excessive secretion of epinephrine. Which receptors will be affected by this hypersecretion?
alpha and beta receptors
55) Which structures or organs receive only sympathetic innervation?
sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, kidney
56) What does increased parasympathetic stimulation cause?
decrease heart rate
57) The main integrating centers for most autonomic reflexes are found where?
hypothalamus and brain stem