Chapters 10-11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 10-11 Deck (50):
1

1) How does muscle tissue contribute to homeostasis?

By generating heat that helps maintain body temperature, by moving materials through the body, by pulling on bones to move the body.

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2) What is the primary function of muscle?

Conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy

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3) Describe skeletal muscle.

Is striated, largely under voluntary control

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Describe cardiac muscle .

Is striated

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5) Describe smooth muscle.

Regulated by the autonomic division of the nervous system

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6) List the functions of muscle tissue.

Controlling flow of materials out of the stomach and urinary bladder

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7) Name the ability to respond to stimuli by producing action potentials.

Called electrical excitability, property of muscular tissue

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The ability of a muscle tissue to stretch without being damaged is called what?

Extensibility

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9) What is a muscle fiber (myofiber)?

A cell

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10) What is the function of superficial fascia?

Provides a route for lymphatic and blood vessels as well as nerves to enter muscles

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11) What is the function of deep fascia?

Holds muscles with similar functions together

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12) The outermost extension of deep connective tissue that surrounds a muscle is the

Epimysium

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13) A skeletal myofiber comes from what embryonic cells?

Derived from embryonic cells called my oblasts

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14) An adult has more muscle mass than a child. How did that increase in muscle mass occur?

Hyper trophy

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15) What are transverse tubules and how do they function?

Actually tiny pockets of plasma membrane that extend into the muscle cell, filled with interstitial fluid

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16) What is unque about the sarcoplasm?

Enriched with glycogen

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17) What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle tissue store?

Calcium ions required for muscle contraction

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18) What is muscular atrophy?

Decrease In muscle mass due to loss of myofibrils

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19) What are myofibrils made up of?

Contractile proteins, actin, myosin

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20) Describe thick filaments.

Composed primarily of myosin

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21) Describe thin filaments.

Composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin

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22) What happens during a muscle contraction?

NOT: the thick and thin filaments shorten

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23) Explain the contraction cycle.

Cannot begin until calcium has bound to troponin, cannot begi until the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed

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24) Place the events of a contraction cycle in the order in which they occur.

ATP hydrolysis, cross bridge formation, power stroke, detachment of myosin head from actin

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25) What is repetition of the contraction cycle?

Requires the presence of an adequate number of calcium ions

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26) How is excitation of the sarcolemma coupled to the contraction of a muscle fiber?

Excitation continues into the t-tubules causing calcium release channels to open, thus starting a contraction cycle

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27) What makes up a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)?

Synapse of a motor neuron with a muscle fiber

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28) What acts on the NMJ to block stimulation of muscle contraction?

Botulinum toxin, curare

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29) How do muscle fibers produce ATP?

From creatine phosphate, through anaerobic cellular respiration, through aerobic cellular respiration.

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How is creatine phosphate produced?

Production requires the activity of creatine kinase

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31) Explain anaerobic cellular respiration.

Converts glucose to pyruvic *** and ultimately to lactic acid! can produce energy for 30-40 seconds of contraction

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Explain aerobic cellular respiration.

converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into CO2, H20, heat and ATP, occurs in the mitochondria, requires O2, which can be obtained from hemoglobin or myoglobin, is required for muscle activities lasting longer than one minute

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what contributes to muscle fatigue

NOT: presence of adequate amounts of O2 in the mitochondria

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34) What is oxygen debt (recovery oxygen uptake)?

the amount of O2 required by the body to recuperate from excercise

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35) What is muscle tone?

results from involuntary contractions of alternating small groups of motor units

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36) What are isotonic contractions?

used to move objects or to move the body

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37) What are slow oxidative muscle fibers?

resist fatigue and contain large amounts of myoglobin

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38) Describe cardiac muscle tissue?

autorythmic, contains branched cells that are connected by intercalated discs, contains Ca2+ required for *** contracted from the sacroplasmic reticulum and the interstitial fluid, maintains contractions for longer periods of time than skeletal muscle tissue

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39) Describe smooth muscle tissue?

may be stimulated to contract by hormones, uses calmodulin** to remove calcium from the cytoplasm

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40) What is true of muscle tissue regeneration?

NOT: skeletal muscle tissue retains its mitotic ability and ability to regenerate throughout life

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41) What effects the aging of muscular tissue?

NOT: exercise has little effort on delaying or reversing age related loss of skeletal muscle function

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42) How muscles move bones?

muscles pull on bones; they do not push bones, the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves least is the origin of that muscle, the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves most is the insertion of the muscle

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43) How is the origin and insertion of a muscle determined?

the origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to its insertion

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What is a lever?

a rigid structure that moves about a fixed point, provides mechanical advantage when a small amount of effort can move a large load

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45) Describe a first class lever.

extends a bowed head

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46) Describe a third class lever.

most common lever system in the human body

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47) Where are intramuscular injections usually given?

vastus lateralis of a child

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48) What is a prime mover (agonist)?

the muscle most responsible for a particular action

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49) What is RICE therapy?

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevate

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50) Describe the compartment syndrome.

all are correct