Flashcards in Chapters 10-11 Deck (50):
1) How does muscle tissue contribute to homeostasis?
By generating heat that helps maintain body temperature, by moving materials through the body, by pulling on bones to move the body.
2) What is the primary function of muscle?
Conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy
3) Describe skeletal muscle.
Is striated, largely under voluntary control
Describe cardiac muscle .
5) Describe smooth muscle.
Regulated by the autonomic division of the nervous system
6) List the functions of muscle tissue.
Controlling flow of materials out of the stomach and urinary bladder
7) Name the ability to respond to stimuli by producing action potentials.
Called electrical excitability, property of muscular tissue
The ability of a muscle tissue to stretch without being damaged is called what?
9) What is a muscle fiber (myofiber)?
10) What is the function of superficial fascia?
Provides a route for lymphatic and blood vessels as well as nerves to enter muscles
11) What is the function of deep fascia?
Holds muscles with similar functions together
12) The outermost extension of deep connective tissue that surrounds a muscle is the
13) A skeletal myofiber comes from what embryonic cells?
Derived from embryonic cells called my oblasts
14) An adult has more muscle mass than a child. How did that increase in muscle mass occur?
15) What are transverse tubules and how do they function?
Actually tiny pockets of plasma membrane that extend into the muscle cell, filled with interstitial fluid
16) What is unque about the sarcoplasm?
Enriched with glycogen
17) What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle tissue store?
Calcium ions required for muscle contraction
18) What is muscular atrophy?
Decrease In muscle mass due to loss of myofibrils
19) What are myofibrils made up of?
Contractile proteins, actin, myosin
20) Describe thick filaments.
Composed primarily of myosin
21) Describe thin filaments.
Composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin
22) What happens during a muscle contraction?
NOT: the thick and thin filaments shorten
23) Explain the contraction cycle.
Cannot begin until calcium has bound to troponin, cannot begi until the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed
24) Place the events of a contraction cycle in the order in which they occur.
ATP hydrolysis, cross bridge formation, power stroke, detachment of myosin head from actin
25) What is repetition of the contraction cycle?
Requires the presence of an adequate number of calcium ions
26) How is excitation of the sarcolemma coupled to the contraction of a muscle fiber?
Excitation continues into the t-tubules causing calcium release channels to open, thus starting a contraction cycle
27) What makes up a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)?
Synapse of a motor neuron with a muscle fiber
28) What acts on the NMJ to block stimulation of muscle contraction?
Botulinum toxin, curare
29) How do muscle fibers produce ATP?
From creatine phosphate, through anaerobic cellular respiration, through aerobic cellular respiration.
How is creatine phosphate produced?
Production requires the activity of creatine kinase
31) Explain anaerobic cellular respiration.
Converts glucose to pyruvic *** and ultimately to lactic acid! can produce energy for 30-40 seconds of contraction
Explain aerobic cellular respiration.
converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into CO2, H20, heat and ATP, occurs in the mitochondria, requires O2, which can be obtained from hemoglobin or myoglobin, is required for muscle activities lasting longer than one minute
what contributes to muscle fatigue
NOT: presence of adequate amounts of O2 in the mitochondria
34) What is oxygen debt (recovery oxygen uptake)?
the amount of O2 required by the body to recuperate from excercise
35) What is muscle tone?
results from involuntary contractions of alternating small groups of motor units
36) What are isotonic contractions?
used to move objects or to move the body
37) What are slow oxidative muscle fibers?
resist fatigue and contain large amounts of myoglobin
38) Describe cardiac muscle tissue?
autorythmic, contains branched cells that are connected by intercalated discs, contains Ca2+ required for *** contracted from the sacroplasmic reticulum and the interstitial fluid, maintains contractions for longer periods of time than skeletal muscle tissue
39) Describe smooth muscle tissue?
may be stimulated to contract by hormones, uses calmodulin** to remove calcium from the cytoplasm
40) What is true of muscle tissue regeneration?
NOT: skeletal muscle tissue retains its mitotic ability and ability to regenerate throughout life
41) What effects the aging of muscular tissue?
NOT: exercise has little effort on delaying or reversing age related loss of skeletal muscle function
42) How muscles move bones?
muscles pull on bones; they do not push bones, the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves least is the origin of that muscle, the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves most is the insertion of the muscle
43) How is the origin and insertion of a muscle determined?
the origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to its insertion
What is a lever?
a rigid structure that moves about a fixed point, provides mechanical advantage when a small amount of effort can move a large load
45) Describe a first class lever.
extends a bowed head
46) Describe a third class lever.
most common lever system in the human body
47) Where are intramuscular injections usually given?
vastus lateralis of a child
48) What is a prime mover (agonist)?
the muscle most responsible for a particular action
49) What is RICE therapy?