Chapters 6-9 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapters 6-9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 6-9 Deck (50):
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1. Which tissues are present in bone?

all but muscle tissue

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2. What are the components of the skeletal system?

bones and ligaments and tendons associated with bones

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3. What are the functions the skeleton?

all but initiate movement

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4. What is the relationship between the skeletal system and the blood?

the bones make red bloods cels and some bones house hemopoietic tissue that makes blood cells

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5. What is found at the ends of long bones?

articular cartiliage and epiphyses

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6. Which membrane lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?

endosteum

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7. What is true concerning bone histology?

the connective tissue matrix of bone is only about 50% crystallized mineral salts

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8. Which cells would be expected to be most active in replacing bone matrix lost due to an injury?

osteoblasts

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9. Describe compact bone.

is arranged in units called osteons (haversian systems)

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10. What is found within compact bone?

all but trabeculae

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11. Which structures allow communication between blood vessels and nerves in the periosteum and endosteum?

Central canals

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12. How are the alignment of osteons in compact bone arranged?

is along lines of physical stress on a long bone

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13. Describe spongy bone.

houses red bone marrow

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14. What is true of bone scans?

bone scans are the standard medical imaging technique for measuring bone density

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15. Which blood vessels are associated with a hole in the shaft of a long bone?

Dyephseal arteries and veins

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16. What is the relationship of nerves and bones?

nerves follow the blood vessels that supply the bones

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17. Explain bone formation .

requires replacement of pre-existing connective tissue

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18. What forms intramembranous ossification?

mandible, flat plates of the skull, bone that replaces soft spots on an infant skull

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19. What happens to the bone matrix during intramembranous ossification?

trabeulae develop and fuse to form spongy bone

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20. Compare intramembranous ossification to endochondral ossification.

endochondral ossification allows both interstitial and appostitional growth

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21. What is the name of the processes that causes bone to increase in size?

Increases in diameter by Appositional growth
Increases in Length by interstitial growth

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22. What is the epiphyseal plate? (what does it consist of)

consists of 4 zones of chondrocytes

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23. What is the zone of hypertrophic cartilage?

is filled with large chondrocytes that are accumulating glycogen

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24. Which event must occur first in appositional growth of bone?

differentiaton of periosteal cells into osteoblasts

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25. What is required for proper bone growth?

vitamins A, B12, C, D, K;
Minerals Ca, P;
Hormones IGF's, Thyroid Hormones, Growth Hormones, Insulin

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26. Which hormone is specifically responsible for terminating growth at the epiphyseal plate in both men and women as they end adolescence?

estrogen

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27. Explain bone remodeling?

it requires the activity of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

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28. Explain the breakdown of bone matrix ?

bone resorption

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29. The pediatrician tells the parents that their child has a greenstick fracture. In layman’s terms, what is a greenstick fracture?

a partial break that results in one side of the bone bending

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30. What are the events of fracture repair in the order in which they occur?

fracture hematoma forms, fibrocartilaginous callus forms, bony callus forms, bone remodeling

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31. Why is the regulation of Ca2+ so critical to homeostasis?

Ca2+ is important for proper neuron function and is important in cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction

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32. Which hormone is most important in regulating the movement of Ca2+ between the blood and the bones?

parathyroid horomone

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33. How does PTH elevate blood Ca2+ levels?

by increasing the number and activiy of osteoclasts

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34. What happens when calcitonin levels rise?

osteoclast activity is inhibited

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35. What happens in the aging process of bones?

all but; increased calcitonin levels are largely responsible for loss of bone density with age

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36. Why are bones important?

they protect soft tissues of the body and serves as anatomical landmarks

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37. What makes up the musculoskeletal system?

bones, joints, skeletal muscles

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38. How man bones are found in the adult skeleton?

206 named bones

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39. Which bone type is typically found in ligaments or tendons?

sesamoid

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40. Why are adult long bones usually slightly curved?

because curves allow mechanical stress to be evenly distributed

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41. What causes bone surface markings?

develop in response to stressses placed on bones

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42. A point of contact between two bones, bone and cartilage, or bone and teeth is called a(n)

joint, articulation, and arthrosis

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43. Structural classification of a joint is based on

Amount of space between the bones and the presence or absence of synovial cavity, type of connective tissue that links the bones together

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44. A student examining a joint observes collagen-rich connective tissue fibers linking the bones, but finds no synovial cavity. Which structural classification fits the observed joint?

fibrous

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45. What are examples of a synarthrosis?

sutures of the skull

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46. Explain sutures .

Interlocking edges that reduce the likelihood of a fracture

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47. What are true of all synovial joints?

are diarthrosis

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48. What is synovial fluid?

lubricateds diarthrotic joints, helps absorb mechanical shocks, brings nutrients and O2 to cartiliage in diarthrosis, removes wastes and CO2 from cartilage in diarthrosis

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49. Some synovial joints are strengthened by joints that lie outside the articular capsule or outside of folds of synovial membranes. Such ligaments are called

extracapsular

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50. What are menisci?

helps bones fit together more closely