Flashcards in Chapters 6-9 Deck (50):
1. Which tissues are present in bone?
all but muscle tissue
2. What are the components of the skeletal system?
bones and ligaments and tendons associated with bones
3. What are the functions the skeleton?
all but initiate movement
4. What is the relationship between the skeletal system and the blood?
the bones make red bloods cels and some bones house hemopoietic tissue that makes blood cells
5. What is found at the ends of long bones?
articular cartiliage and epiphyses
6. Which membrane lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?
7. What is true concerning bone histology?
the connective tissue matrix of bone is only about 50% crystallized mineral salts
8. Which cells would be expected to be most active in replacing bone matrix lost due to an injury?
9. Describe compact bone.
is arranged in units called osteons (haversian systems)
10. What is found within compact bone?
all but trabeculae
11. Which structures allow communication between blood vessels and nerves in the periosteum and endosteum?
12. How are the alignment of osteons in compact bone arranged?
is along lines of physical stress on a long bone
13. Describe spongy bone.
houses red bone marrow
14. What is true of bone scans?
bone scans are the standard medical imaging technique for measuring bone density
15. Which blood vessels are associated with a hole in the shaft of a long bone?
Dyephseal arteries and veins
16. What is the relationship of nerves and bones?
nerves follow the blood vessels that supply the bones
17. Explain bone formation .
requires replacement of pre-existing connective tissue
18. What forms intramembranous ossification?
mandible, flat plates of the skull, bone that replaces soft spots on an infant skull
19. What happens to the bone matrix during intramembranous ossification?
trabeulae develop and fuse to form spongy bone
20. Compare intramembranous ossification to endochondral ossification.
endochondral ossification allows both interstitial and appostitional growth
21. What is the name of the processes that causes bone to increase in size?
Increases in diameter by Appositional growth
Increases in Length by interstitial growth
22. What is the epiphyseal plate? (what does it consist of)
consists of 4 zones of chondrocytes
23. What is the zone of hypertrophic cartilage?
is filled with large chondrocytes that are accumulating glycogen
24. Which event must occur first in appositional growth of bone?
differentiaton of periosteal cells into osteoblasts
25. What is required for proper bone growth?
vitamins A, B12, C, D, K;
Minerals Ca, P;
Hormones IGF's, Thyroid Hormones, Growth Hormones, Insulin
26. Which hormone is specifically responsible for terminating growth at the epiphyseal plate in both men and women as they end adolescence?
27. Explain bone remodeling?
it requires the activity of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
28. Explain the breakdown of bone matrix ?
29. The pediatrician tells the parents that their child has a greenstick fracture. In layman’s terms, what is a greenstick fracture?
a partial break that results in one side of the bone bending
30. What are the events of fracture repair in the order in which they occur?
fracture hematoma forms, fibrocartilaginous callus forms, bony callus forms, bone remodeling
31. Why is the regulation of Ca2+ so critical to homeostasis?
Ca2+ is important for proper neuron function and is important in cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction
32. Which hormone is most important in regulating the movement of Ca2+ between the blood and the bones?
33. How does PTH elevate blood Ca2+ levels?
by increasing the number and activiy of osteoclasts
34. What happens when calcitonin levels rise?
osteoclast activity is inhibited
35. What happens in the aging process of bones?
all but; increased calcitonin levels are largely responsible for loss of bone density with age
36. Why are bones important?
they protect soft tissues of the body and serves as anatomical landmarks
37. What makes up the musculoskeletal system?
bones, joints, skeletal muscles
38. How man bones are found in the adult skeleton?
206 named bones
39. Which bone type is typically found in ligaments or tendons?
40. Why are adult long bones usually slightly curved?
because curves allow mechanical stress to be evenly distributed
41. What causes bone surface markings?
develop in response to stressses placed on bones
42. A point of contact between two bones, bone and cartilage, or bone and teeth is called a(n)
joint, articulation, and arthrosis
43. Structural classification of a joint is based on
Amount of space between the bones and the presence or absence of synovial cavity, type of connective tissue that links the bones together
44. A student examining a joint observes collagen-rich connective tissue fibers linking the bones, but finds no synovial cavity. Which structural classification fits the observed joint?
45. What are examples of a synarthrosis?
sutures of the skull
46. Explain sutures .
Interlocking edges that reduce the likelihood of a fracture
47. What are true of all synovial joints?
48. What is synovial fluid?
lubricateds diarthrotic joints, helps absorb mechanical shocks, brings nutrients and O2 to cartiliage in diarthrosis, removes wastes and CO2 from cartilage in diarthrosis
49. Some synovial joints are strengthened by joints that lie outside the articular capsule or outside of folds of synovial membranes. Such ligaments are called