Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (30):
1) What are the differences between the endocrine system and the nervous system?
directs long term processes such as pregnancy and puberty
2) What does the endocrine system target?
its targets are limited to muscles, glands, and nerves
3) Which mediator is considered to be both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
4) What are the endocrine glands?
Not sudiferous gland
5) What organs contain endocrine tissue?
Not gall bladder
6) The anterior pituitary gland responds to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), but the posterior pituitary gland does not. Why?
only the anterior pituatry gland has receptors for GnRH
7) A patient has a tumor causing excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). How will his body attempt to compensate for excessive amounts of PTH?
His body will down regulate the receptors for PTH to become less sensitive to that hormone
8) What are paracrine substances?
*paracrine substances act on nearby tissues without first entering the blood, paracrine substances are inactivated quickly; their efforts are short lived, interleukin-2 (il-2) is an example of a paracrine substance
E, A, B, and C are correct
9) What are the lipid-soluble hormones?
10) Which classes of hormones are water-soluble?
*eicosanoids, amines, peptides, proteins
E all are correct
11) What do T3 and T4 have in common with epinephrine and norepinephrine?
they are all derived from the amino acid tyrosine
12) Which of the following hormones is able to alter gene expression in the mitochondria?
13) Cyclic AMP and cGMP are common 2nd messengers. What is the 1st messenger?
a water soluble hormone
14) A single molecule ____ can create an amplification effect because it acts via the 2nd messenger mechanism.
15) Calcitonin and parathyroid hormones have opposite effects on blood Ca2+ level, therefore they are considered to be
16) What is the hypothalamus and what does it do?
a link betwen the endocrine and nervous systems
17) What is the pituitary gland and what does it do?
consists of two lobes, the adenohypophysis and the neuroypophysis
18) What does the anterior pituitary gland do?
regulates the function of some other endocrine glands by secreting hormones called tropins
19) What does the posterior pituitary gland do?
containes pitulcytes* and the axons of neurons that originate in the hypothalamus
20) What is oxytocin and what does it do?
stimulates ejection of milk from the breast
21) What is ADH and what does it do?
is also called vasopressin, inhibits loss of water via urination, dcreases loss of water via prespiration, helps regulate blood pressure
E, All are correct
22) In order to synthesize thyroid hormones, which materials must be available?
iodine, tyosine, or its precurser phenylaline, other amino acids required for thyroglobulin synthesis
E, A, B, and C are correct
23) What is the possible outcome of elevated TSH secretion?
Not increased TSH synthesis
24) Increased levels of thyroid hormones would do what?
Help regulate beta receptors
25) What is calcitonin and what does it do?
decreases blood Ca2+ levels
26) How does PTH increase blood Ca 2+ levels?
by increasing osteoclast activity
27) What is aldosterone and what does it do?
is responsible for increasing retention of Na+ by the kidneys
28) What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
secretes horomes that intensify the flight or fight response
29) A six-year old spent the day eating sweets. He ate cookies for breakfast, ice cream for lunch and candy for supper.
How did his body maintain his blood glucose level within normal range?
by increasing insuline secretion