Flashcards in Chapters 16-17 Deck (100):
1) What are sensations and where and how are they generated?
All of the above
2) Which parts of the nervous system must receive sensory impulses in order to be consciously aware of or to be able to remember the taste of chocolate?
Spinal cord, thalamus, cerebral cortex, brain stem
3) Which sensations are consciously perceived?
Not blood pressure
4) How does an individual sensory neuron carry information?
From sensory modality
5) What are the general somatic senses?
NOT fullness of urinary bladder
6) What are the special senses?
Not touch or pain
7) What is the order in which a stimulus is transmitted?
Stimulation of sensory receptor, transduction of stimulus, generation of impulse, integration of sensory input
8) What is transduction?
Conversion of energy in a vibration to a graded potential
9) Why do you seem to see with your eyes?
Impulses from retinal neurons are interpreted by primary sensory area
10) What are sensory receptors?
Free nerve ending, encapsulated, cell that synapse, all of the above
11) Which sensations cannot be detected by a free nerve ending?
12) Which separate cells synapse with 1st order neurons and are associated with the special senses?
Hair cells, gustatory receptor cells, photoreceptors
13) Stimulation of most special sense receptors triggers what?
14) John had a bad day. He cut 5 mm of his chin while shaving in the morning; later he cut 5 cm on the palm
of his hand instead of the box he was trying to open. Why did the palm injury hurt more?
All of the above
15) How is a sensory receptor classified?
structure, location, stimuli
16) How does adaptation function?
Generator potential or receptor potential decreases in amplitude during maintained stimulus
17) What are the true somatic sensations?
Not concentrated in back or neck
18) What are true of tactile sensations?
Faster than itch/tickle, touch and cutaneous
19) How do you sense touch?
Through tactile sensation
20) How does an itch response occur?
Not mechanical stimulation conveyed
21) What is true of thermal sensations?
CNS via class C fibers
22) What are nociceptors and how do they function?
Pain, excessive chemical thermal stimuli
23) Katie was in a terrible automobile accident that cut her face, broke her ribs and tore her diaphragm. Which kind of pain did she experience at the time of her accident?
24) What are proprioceptors and how do they function?
Muscle spindles, detection if body and head position.
25) How do second order neurons send impulses to the thalamus?
They decussate in the brain stem, conduct impulses to thalamus
26) What carries sensory information to the brain?
All of the above
27) Sensations arising from impulses conducted along the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway include
Touch, pressure, vibration, conscious, propioception, NOT crude touch
28) What do lower motor neurons do?
Innervate skeletal muscle in the body
29) What do upper motor neurons do?
Give I put to local circuit neurons and lower motor neurons
30) How are direct and indirect pathways of somatic motor pathways organized?
Control generation of impulses in lower motor neurons
31) What percentage of the axons of upper motor neurons decussate in the medulla oblongata
90% or Not 10%
32) What tracts make up the direct motor pathway?
Corticospinal and corticobulbar
33) What makes up indirect motor pathways?
Complex polysynaptic circuits
34) What is the basal ganglia and what does it do?
Initiation and termination of movements, suppress unwanted movements, influence muscle tone
35) How is the cerebellum involved in the control of movement?
monitors and influences movement. ***
36) What are the integrative functions of the cerebrum?
sleep, wakefulness, learning, memory
37) What establishes the human wake and sleep rhythm?
circadian rhythm, hypothalamus
38) What are the stages of NREM sleep?
moderately deep sleep
39) Describe REM sleep.
eyes move rapdily back and forth
40) Does increased sympathetic activity take place during sleep?
41) Theophylline is widely used to treat asthma. Parents of asthmatic children are relieved when their child
can breathe again but are sometimes annoyed by one of theophylline’s common side effects. What is this
combines with A-1 receptors so you cant sleep
42) What is plasticity in the formation of memories?
the capability for change associated with learning
43) Which parts of the brain are thought to be involved in memory formation?
frontal, parietal, occipital temporal, limbic system,
44) A classmate tells you which chapter to be read for the next class meeting and begins to walk away. Which
type of memory will you use to remember the information and write it in your notebook before your
classmate is out of sight?
45) Some medications interfere with the normal functions of the amygdala or the hippocampus. What could
might be a side effect of such a medication?
no short term memories
46) A person suffering from a closed head injury remembers events from this week very clearly, but cannot
recognize the faces of people she knew before the injury occurred. Which part of her brain is most likely
affected by the injury?
occipital cerebral cortex
47) What changes occur in a neuron when it is stimulated?
increase the number of presynaptic terminals and enlargement of synaptic end bulbs, increase in number of dendrite branches
48) What is Parkinson’s Disease?
progressive disease that causes imbalance in neurotransmitter activity
49) A disorder caused by hypoxia during birth and resulting in loss of muscle control is what?
50) Which senses includes vision, hearing, balance, taste and smell?
51) What are unique about special sense receptors?
anatomically distinct, concentrated in specific locations in the head
52) What is smell?
53) What do olfactory receptors use to transduce chemical signals?
54) How do olfactory receptors differ from other neurons?
lower threshold, they regenerate
55) Place the parts of the olfactory pathway in the order in which an impulse travels to its integration center:
56) What are the primary taste sensations?
sour sweet bitter salty umami
57) How does gestation compare to olfaction?
it is a chemical sense but it is much simpler
58) Which of the papillae function in gestation?
vallate, fungiform, foliate, NOT filiform
59) Which taste sensations arises from ions entering specific channels in the plasma membranes of gustatory
60) Which tastants binds to receptors on the plasma membrane rather than entering the cell?
sodium or salty
61) If there are only five primary tastes, why can humans identify thousands of flavors?
all of the above
62) What are the tastes in order of increasing thresholds?
bitter, sour, sweet, salty
63) What are the accessory structures of the eye?
NOT intrinsic eye muscles
64) What are the functions of the eyelids?
shade the eyes during sleep, protects eyes from excessive light and foreign objects, and lubricates eyeballs
65) What is unique about humans expressing emotion through crying?
only humans do it
66) What is the fibrous tunic of the eye?
superficial layer of the eyeball**
67) A 3-year-old child becomes frightened of the “monster” in the closet and runs screaming into his parents’
room. What might the boy’s mother, a neurologist, notice about the child’s pupils?
68) Hypertension is sometimes called the “silent killer” because patients may be asymptomatic until significant
damage to tissues has occurred. Why might an optometrist (an O.D.) be the 1st person to detect that a
patient has hypertension?
during eye exam the doctor may see a change in the retinal blood vessels (which are a sign of hypertension)
69) What landmarks may be examined with an ophthalmoscope?
NOT optic chiasma
70) What do rods do?
allow us to see in dim light
71) What do cones do?
72) The area of highest visual acuity is the
73) What does the lens do?
focus images on the retina
74) What does the aqueous humor do?
fluid that nourishes the lens and cornea of the eye
75) What is the near point focus?
Not the longest distance away from the eye that you can focus
76) Ten year old Matt Zigbowski struggles at school. His teacher seats students alphabetically, so he is at the
back of the classroom. He cannot see the words on the chalkboard from his desk. When he goes to the
teacher’s desk near the chalkboard, he can see the words but some of the letters t, l, and i are hard to
distinguish from each other. What is probably wrong with his eyes?
myopia and astigmatism
77) Where does transduction of light take place?
outer segments of rods and cones
78) How does light excite the bipolar cells that synapse with rods?
blocking release of inhibitory neurotransmitter
79) Where will a nerve impulse that arose when ganglion cells depolarized terminate?
in the thalamus
80) Where do axons from the temporal half of each retina discussate?
NOT in the optic chiasma
81) What are the functions of the external, middle and inner ears?
all of the above
82) What makes up the external ear?
auricle, external auditory canal, eardrum
83) A patient had a stroke that damaged her facial nerve. In addition to changes in the ability to make facial
expressions, what might be observed by the patient?
84) What is the function of the auditory tube?
connects middle ear with nasopharynx
85) What makes up the inner ear?
bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, semicircular canal, cochlea
86) What forms the vestibular branch of cranial nerve VIII?
ampullary, utricular, saccular nerves
87) The hair cells of the spiral organ (organ of Corti) are covered with what?
supporting cells , receptors for hearing ***
88) How does pitch increase?
higher frequency of vibration
89) What is the function of the ossicles?
conveys sound vibrations
90) Loud noises, especially from music or engines can cause deafness if the sound level is what?
exceeding 110 DB
91) Do all regions of the basilar membrane vibrate with the same intensity
92) Where do first-order neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve terminate?
93) What does static and dynamic equilibrium maintain for the body?
maintain position relative to gravity, dynamic maintains position in response to movements
94) A 4-year-old who wants to be a gymnast is assisted on to the balance beam and instructed just to stand
on it for a minute. Which parts of the child’s ears will primarily be involved in helping her stay on the
ossicle, tympanic membrane***
95) A gymnast competing in the floor exercise must do a rapidly executed series of flips and twists. At the end
of those movements the gymnast must land upright within the boundaries of tumbling mat and remain
motionless for a few seconds. Which parts of the gymnast’s ears allow him to successfully complete the
vestibular apparatus, inner ear
96) Axons from the vestibular nuclei extend to the nuclei of which cranial nerves?
III, IV, VI
97) How does the cerebellum function in maintaining equilibrium?
all of the above
98) When do the eyes begin development and from what embryonic tissue
22 days post fertilization, from the ectoderm
99) Where does the inner ear arise from in the embryo?