Chapters 28-29 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapters 28-29 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 28-29 Deck (100):
1

1) What are the functions of gonads and how do they store and transport gametes?

All of the above

2

2) What makes up the male reproductive system?

Not the vestibular gland

3

3) What is the function of the scrotum?

reglautes the temperature of the testes

4

4) Where are sperm produced?

in the seminiferous tubules

5

5) What do sertoli (sustentacular) cells do?

mediate the effects of testosterone and LH

6

6) Which cells develop first in producing sperm?

spermatogonium

7

7) What are the details of sperm production?

All of the above

8

8) What do testosterone and dihydrotestosterone do?

Not to bind to the different recpetors

9

9) What happens in the epididymis?

it is the site where sperm become capable of fertilizing an ovum

10

10) What happens in the ductus deferens?

it can store sperm for a month or more

11

11) What makes up the spermatic cord?

not dartros muscle

12

12) What takes place in the seminal vesicles?

produce a fluid containing fructose which is used for ATP production by sperm

13

13) What does the prostate gland do?

produces a fluid contaning citric acid which is used for ATP production

14

14) What cells are primarily involved in testicular cancer?

UNKOWN

15

15) What does the bulbourethral glands do?

secrete an alkaline mucous

16

16) What is the function of semen?

NOT protects sperm from the hostile alkaline envoronment of the male urethra nd the female vagina

17

17) What do the ovaries do?

they produce FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (leutenizing hormone)

18

18) What are the anatomical structures of the ovaries?

the ovarian follicles consists of oocytes in various stages of development

19

19) When is oogenesis completed?

is completed only after the secondary oocyte has been fertilized

20

20) What do the uterine tubes do?

transport sperm, secondary oocytes and zygotes

21

21) What is the function of the uterus?

Not uninvolved in labor

22

22) What is the anatomy of the uterus?

has a cervix that opens into the vagina

23

23) What is the endometrium and what does it do?

All of the above

24

24) What is the function of cervical mucus?

can physically prevent sperm from entering the uterus

25

25) What is the vagina?

the outlet for menstrual flow

26

26) What is another name for the vulva?

is also called the pudendum

27

27) What are the boundaries of the perineum ?

bonded anteriorly by the pubic symphysis and posteriorly by the coccyx

28

28) What do the mammary glands do?

produce milk

29

29) How is lactation accomplished?

not contraction of adipose tissue ejects milk

30

30) What is a radical hysterectomy?

removal of the body of the cervix of the uterus, uterine tubes, possibly the ovaries, the superior portion of the vagina, pelvic lymph nodes, and suporting structures such as ligaments

31

31) What is included in the female reproductive cycle?

All of the above

32

32) What does GnRH do?

stimulates production and release of FSH from the anterior pituatiary gland

33

33) What does LH do?

All of the above

34

34) What do estrogens do?

promote the development and maintenence of female reproductive structures

35

35) What is the preovulatory phase?

time when one dominant follicle becomes the mature follicle

36

36) What happens during the proliferative phase?

the thickeness of the endometrium nearly doubles

37

37) Explain ovulation.

All of the above

38

38) What does the corpus luteum do?

produces estrogen and progesterone

39

39) What happens during the secretory phase?

glycogen is secreted

40

40) What is amenorrhea associated with?

not increased body fat

41

41) Which forms of birth control has the highest failure rate?

spermicides

42

42) Which birth control method prevents pregnancy but not conception?

intra-uterine device or IUD

43

43) An embryo has one X and one Y chromosome, but the Y chromosome has no functioning SRY gene. The embryo also has no functioning gene for the production of MIS. If development continues, at birth the resulting child will appear to be what sex?

female

44

44) Which hormones are known to be directly involved in puberty?

Not relaxin

45

45) What are the typical signs or symptoms of menopause?

All of the above

46

46) What produces substances that protect the gametes and facilitate their movement?

accessory glands

47

47) Name the gametes.

sperm, secondary oocytes

48

48) Where are gametes produced?

gonads

49

49) Where is the site of spermatogenesis?

seminiferous tubules

50

50) What makes testosterone?

interstitial or Leydig cells

51

51) What is the fetal period and what branches of science deal with fertilization to adulthood and the events from fertilization to the eight week?

All of the above

52

52) What is fertilization?

sperm and secondary oocyte pronuclei are made into one diploid nucleus

53

53) What must happen in order for fertilization to occur?

sperm bind to 2p3 receptors on zona-palucita

54

54) What must happen in order for a zygote to form after syngamy occurs?

UNKOWN

55

55) It is not uncommon for a woman to release more than one secondary oocyte per cycle in the first months after she quits taking oral contraceptives. This phenomenon increases the likelihood of what occurance?

conceiving dizygotic twins

56

56) What does cleavage of the zygote do?

produces morula

57

57) What is the next stage after the morula?

blastocyst

58

58) What does the blastocyst form?

inner cell mass, trophoblast

59

59) When doe implantation occur?

day 6 after fertilization

60

60) What does Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) do?

sustains production of progesterone and estrogen

61

61) What happens to the inner cell mass of the blastocyst?

divides into epiglast and hypoplast which then turns into an embryo

62

62) What forms amniotic fluid?

filtrate of maternal blood

63

63) What is the function of the yolk sac?

supplies nutrients to embryo between 2nd to 3rd week, source of blood cells 3-6 week, part of gut

64

64) What is the function of the chorion?

principle embryonic part of the placenta

65

65) What is gastrulating?

produces endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm

66

66) Name the embryonic tissues and what do they develop into?

ectoderm becomes nervous system and epidermis

67

67) What does the human allantois do?

early formation of blood and blood vessels

68

68) Where do somites come from and how are they significant?

All are correct

69

69) How does the cardiovascular system develop?

angiogenesis is early in the third week
blood plasma nd cells devleop earlier outside of the embryo

70

70) How does the placenta develop?

part of the corionic villi of the fetus

71

71) What is the umbilical cord?

connection between placenta and embryo

72

72) What is the process of the development of organs and body systems?

organogenesis

73

73) What occurs during the 4th week of development?

not auricles of ears appear

74

74) What happens during weeks 5, 6, and 7?

All are correct

75

75) What is the fetal period noted for as to growth?

rapid growth and change in body proportions

76

76) What is associated with weeks 9 to12 of fetal development?

fetal length doubles, upper limbs are more developed than lower limbs, gender can be observed

77

77) What is observed during weeks 17 to 20 of fetal development?

vernex casiosa and laguna cover fetus*

78

78) What is characteristic at 30 to 34 weeks of development, a fetus?

Pupilary reflex, upside down position

79

79) What is true of a 35 to 38 week male fetus?

not completely developed

80

80) List known teratogens?

All are correct

81

81) What are the effects associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?

unusual facial features, heart defects, slow prenatal growth

82

82) Fetal ultrasonography is used for what?

more accurate fetal age, confirm prengancy, position

83

83) What are the changes in a woman’s body due to pregnancy?

body parts such as the pelvis move inferior, tidal volume is increased, decreased GI tract movement

84

84) Describe the stages of labor.

dilation 6-12 hours, expulsion... A + B are correct

85

85) What are the normal respiratory and cardiovascular changes in the fetus at birth?

All are correct

86

86) What does genotype, phenotype and allele mean?

genotype is the genetic combination
phenotype is the xpression of the combination
allele is the individual gene

87

87) What conditions result from an error in meiosis?

translocation and anvephody***

88

88) What is controlled by complex inheritance?

blood type

89

89) Oscar has type O blood. His birthmother, Bertha, has type B blood. His birthfather, Alfredo, has type A blood. What are the genotypes of Oscar’s parents?

IA, i,
IB, i

90

90) The trait for endochondral dwarfism is autosomal dominant. A zygote that is homozygous dominant will not survive embryogenesis. Individuals with normal height and limb proportions are homozygous recessive for the trait. If the letter D is used for the endochondral dwarfism trait, how would the genotype of an individual with dwarfism be written?

Dd

91

91) Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive trait. If both parents are heterozygous for the cystic fibrosis trait, what is the probability that they will conceive a child that does not express the cystic fibrosis trait?

75% - 3/4

92

92) Hemophilia type A is a sex-linked, recessive disorder. What is the probability that a “normal” man and a woman who carries the trait for hemophilia will have a daughter?

50% 1/2

93

93) Give examples of human traits showing incomplete dominance?

sickle cell disease

94

94) Suppose eye color is controlled by four genes, each having a dominant and a recessive allele. If a man and woman, each with genotype AaBbCcDd, have children what would be the possible outcomes for their children?

All are correct

95

95) The first 28 days after birth is what period?

neonatal

96

96) What is the term for a human between 9 weeks of development and birth?

fetus

97

97) What is the study and management of prenatal and neonatal periods?

obstetrics

98

98) What is the union of sperm and secondary oocyte nuclei?

fertilization

99

99) What will result from two secondary oocytes fusing with two sperm?

dizygotic twins

100

100) What is the penetration of the secondary oocyte by one sperm?

syngami