Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Deck (84)
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31

Sperm

1) Head

2) Tail 

1) nucleus with 23 chromosomes 

acrosome - vesicle filled with oocyte penetrating enzyme (for fertilization)

2) neck - contains centrioles forming microtubules that comprise remainder of tail 

middle piece - contains mitochondria 

principal piece - longest portion of tail 

end piece - terminal, tapering portion of tail 

32

Spermatic cord

ascends out of scrotum 

includes ductus deferens

33

Ejaculatory ducts terminate in ___

prostatic urethra

34

Urethra 

subdivided into (3)?

1) prostatic

2) membranous

3) spongy (penile) 

 

ends at external urethral orifice

35

Penis 

contains urethra

passageway for ejaculation of semen & excretion of urine

Body of Penis

Glans Penis

Prepuce (foreskin) 

Root 

36

Body of penis

3 cylindrical masses of tissue with erectile tissue

 

37

Glans penis

terminal opening is external urethral orifice 

 

38

Prepuce 

aka foreskin

covers glans in uncircumsized men

39

Root of penis

attached proximal portion 

consists of bulb crura

40

Female reproductive system 

gonads - ovaries 

uterine (fallopian) tubes (oviducts) 

uterus

vagina

external organs - vulva or pudendum

mammary glands

41

Ovaries 

analagous to testes

produce gametes - 2ndary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs) after fertilization 

42

Series of ligament hold ovaries into place

(3) 

1) broad ligament - part of parietal peritoneum

2) ovarian ligament - anchors ovaries to uterus

3) suspensory ligament - attaches ovaries to pelvic wall

43

Histology of ovary 

- consists of? (7) 

1) germinal epithelium

2) tunica albuginea

3) ovarian cortex

4) ovarian medulla

5) ovarian follicles

6) mature (graafian) follicles

7) corpus luteum 

44

1) germinal epithelium

2) tunica albuginea

3) ovarian cortex

4) ovarian medulla

5) ovarian follicles

6) mature (graafian) follicles

7) corpus luteum 

1) covers ovary surface

2) whitish capsule of dense irregular CT

3) ovarian follicles surrounded by stromal cells 

4) contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves

5) in cortex, consists of oocytes in various stages of development

surrounding cells nourish developing oocyte (follicular -> granulosa cells) & secrete estrogens as follicle grows 

6) large, fluid-filled, ready to expel 2ndary oocyte - ovulation

7) contains remnants of mature follicle after ovulation - produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, inhibin until it degenerates into fibrous scar tissue (corpus albicans

 

45

Uterine (fallopian tubes) or oviduct

extend laterally from uterus 

provide route for sperm to reach ovum 

transport 2ndary oocytes & fertilized ova from ovaries to uterus 

 

46

parts of the Uterine (fallopian) tube 

Infundibulum 

fimbrae

ampulla

isthmus 

47

Parts of Uterine (fallopian) Tube

Infundibulum 

Fimbrae

Ampulla 

Isthmus

funnel shaped portion, infundibulum close to ovary & open to pelvic cavity

- ends in finger-like fimbrae, one of which is attached to lateral end of ovary

ampulla - widest longest portion 

isthmus - more medial, narrow, thick-walled portion that joins uterus 

48

Histology of Uterine tubes

(3) layers

 

1) mucosa

2) muscularis

3) serosa

49

Histology of Uterine tubes

(3) layers

1) mucosa

2) muscularis

3) serosa

1) epithelium & lamina propria, ciliary conveyer belts help move fertilized ovum toward uterus & peg cells that nourish ovum

2) inner, thick, circular smooth muscle ring & outer, thin, longitudinal smooth muscle region, also help move ovum toward uterus

3) serous membrane

50

Uterus 

anatomical subdivisions (3) 

1) fundus 

2) body

3) cervix 

isthmus - constricted region b/w uterus body & cervix

51

Uterine cavity

interior of body of uterus

52

cervical canal

interior of cervix

53

cervical canal opens into uterine cavity at __ ___ and into vagina at __ ___ 

cervical canal opens into uterine cavity at internal os and into vagina at external os

54

Anteflexion of uterus

normally, body of uterus project anteriorly & superiorly over urinary bladder (called anteflexion

55

Several ligaments maintain position of uterus (4) 

1) broad 

2) uterosacral - connect to sacrum

3) cardinal (lateral cervical) 

4) round 

56

Histology of Uterus

(3) layers 

1) perimetrium 

2) myometrium

3) endometrium 

57

Histology of Uterus

(3) layers

1) perimetrium 

2) myometrium

3) endometrium 

1) part of visceral peritoneum 

- broad ligament (laterally), vesicouterine pouch (anteriorly), rectouterine pouch (posteriorly) 

2) middle layer - 3 layers of smooth muscle 

labor → oxytocin from posterior pituitary help expel fetus 

3) two layers -stratum basalis (basal layer) - permanent, gives rise to new stratum functionalis (functional layer) lines uterine cavity & sloughs off during menstration 

58

Blood supply to Uterus 

internal iliac a. → uterine a. → arcuate a. → radial a. → straight (stratum basalis) + spiral arterioles (stratum functionalis) → uterine v. → internal iliac v. 

59

Cervical mucus

alkaline secretion produced by secretory cells of mucosa that is more hospitable to sperm near ovulation but otherwise impedes sperm at other times. 

 

function in capacitation - functional changes in sperm before they are able to fertlize 2ndary oocyte

60

Vagina 

fibromuscular canal extending from exterior of body to uterine cervix 

acidic environment