Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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61

Histology of Vagina

(2) layers

1) muscularis

2) adventitia

62

Histology of Vagina

1) muscularis

2) adventitia

1) outer circular layer, inner longitudinal layer of smooth muscle 

2) superficial layer of areolar CT that anchors vagina to adjacent organs 

63

Hymen of Vagina

thin fold of vascularized mucous membrane forming border around & partially closing vaginal orifice 

64

Vulva (pudendum) 

external genitals of female

65

components of Vulva (5) 

1) mons pubis 

2) labia majora

3) labia minora 

4) clitoris 

5) vestibule

6) bulb of vestibule

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Components of Vulva

1) mons pubis 

2) labia majora

3) labia minora 

4) clitoris 

5) vestibule

6) bulb of vestible

1) adipose tissue covered by skin & pubic hair

2) homologous to scrotum  - oil & sweat glands

3) homologous to spongy (penile) urethra - only few sweat but many oil glands

4) prepuce & glans clitoris - (glans penis) 

5) betwen labia minora - (membranous urethra) 

6) (corpus spongiosum & bulb of penis) 

67

Perineum 

contains?

diamond-shaped area medial to thighs & butt of males & females 

contains external genitalia & anus

68

Breast/Mammary glands

nipple has openings of lactiferous ducts 

areola - pigmented area

mammary gland - modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands that produce milk

 

lobes divided into lobules which are composed alveoli (milk-secreting glands) 

69

When milk is being produced it passes from ___ to...

alveoli → secondary tubules → mammary ducts → lactiferous sinuses → lactiferous duct (lobe → exterior) 

70

Ovarian cycle

series of events in ovaries that occur during & after maturation of an oocyte

71

Uterine (menstrual) cycle

concurrent series of changes in endometrium of uterus to prepare for arrival of fertilized ovum that will develop there after birth

72

Female reproductive cycle encompasses...

ovarian & uterine cycles, hormonal changes that regulate them & related cyclical changes in breasts & cervix

73

What controls the ovarian & uterine cycles?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by hypothalamus 

74

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates?

release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary. 

75

1) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 

 2) Luteinizing hormone (LH) 

stimulate?

1) initiates follicular growth

2) stimulates further development of ovarian follicles 

BOTH stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens. 

76

Functions of Estrogens 

secreted by?

promote development & maintence of female reproductive structures & sex characteristics & breasts

 

ovarian follicles 

77

1) GnRH

2) FSH & LH 

3) estrogens 

4) progesterone 

5) relaxin 

6) inhibin 

produced by? function?

1) hypothalamus - controls ovarian & uterine cycles

2) anterior pituitary - follicular growth & further development, stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens

3) ovarian follicles - develop/maintain female repro. structures & sex characteristics

4) cells of corpus luteum - prep/maintain endometrium for implantation & mammary glands for milk secretion, inhibit GnRH + LH

5) corpus luteum - inhibits myometrium contractions (relax uterus) 

6) granulosa cells of growing follicles & corpus luteum - inhibits FSH secretion & LH

78

Phases of Female Reproductive Cycle (4) 

1) menstrual 

2) preovulatory

3) ovulation

4) postovulatory 

79

1) menstrual phase 

 

first 5 days 

IN OVARIES: FSH → primordial f. → 1º f. →2º f.

IN UTERUS:  ↓ progesterone & estrogens  → ↑ prostaglandins → uterine spiral arteries constrict → endometrium shedding 

 

80

 

 

2) preovulatory phase

 

days 6-13 in 28 day cycle

UTERINE CYCLE - proliferative phase (endometrium is proliferating)

 

IN OVARIES: 2 f. secrete estrogens & inhibin → dominant follicle →  ↓ FSH → mature (graafian) follicle 

IN UTERUS: estrogens stimulate repair of endometrium 

 

 

81

3) ovulation

 

day 14

high estrogens levels at end of preov. phase exert positive feedback effect on cells that secrete LH & GnRH 

↑ estrogens → ↑ GnRH + ↑ LH 

 ↑ GnRH → ↑FSH 

↑ LH → rupture of mature (graafian) follicle & release of 2ndary oocyte into pelvic cavity 


 

82

Follicular phase 

with reference to ovarian cycle, 

menstrual + preovulatory phase

because ovarian follicles are growing & developing

83

4) postovulatory phase 

lasts 14 days (day 15-28) 

IN ONE OVARY: luteal phase (ovarian cycle) 

blood clot, LH → theca interna + granulosa → corpus luteum cells

not fertilized: corpus luteum → corpus albicans

fertilized: 2ndary oocyte divides & corpus luteum persists

IN UTERUS: thickening of endometrium, 

Secretory phase (uterine cycle) - secretory action of endometrial glands

84

Hormone cycle:

hierarchy of control?

 

hypothalamus  → pituitary → ovaries → uterus