Chapter 9 - Enhancing Health, Study, Work and Play through Physical Fitness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Enhancing Health, Study, Work and Play through Physical Fitness Deck (89):
1

fitness includes what 6 things?

1) Cardiorespiratory endurance
2) Flexibility
3) body composition
4) muscular strength
5) muscular power
6) muscular endurance

2

define physical fitness

the ability of the body to adjust to the demands and stresses of physical effort

3

what is physical fitness thought to be a measure of?

physical fitness is thought to me a measure of ones physical health

4

define physical activity

any movement carried out by the skeletal muscles

5

physical activity requires the use of ______

energy

6

muscle strength

the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance

7

true or false: muscular strength is commonly measured as a maximal value

true

8

what is a synonym for strength?

force

9

greater muscle mass results in?

greater muscle mass results in greater strength

10

force = ____ x _____

force = mass x acceleration

11

power

the ability to overcome external resistance at a high rate of muscular contraction

12

what is the ability to exert fore dependent on?

muscular strength

13

_______ is a derivative of muscular strength

Power

14

muscular endurance

the ability of a muscle or muscle group to sustain a given level of force (static, exercise) or to repeatedly contract and relax (dynamic exercise) at a given resistance

15

what is an example of static exercise?

the flexed arm hang is an example of a static exercise

16

what is an example of a dynamic exercise?

sit-ups are an example of a dynamic exercise

17

agonist

working muscles

18

antagonist

counter-acting muscles

19

training should include exercises that stimulate both the ______ and the ______

agonists and antagonists

20

what 2 things happen when you focus only on increasing agonist strength?

1) tends to shorten the agonist muscles
2) tends to weaken the antagonist muscles

21

cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability to produce energy through an improved delivery of oxygen to working muscles

22

what 2 systems does cardiorespiratory endurance involve?

involves cardiovascular system and respiratory system

23

what is the major function of the cardiorespiratory system?

to provide oxygen to tissues

24

what is the cardiorespiratory system needed for?

exertion over longer periods of time

25

aerobic power

the maximal rate at which the body can take up, transport, and utilize oxygen

26

what is the maximal rate at which the body can take up, transport, and utilize oxygen expressed as?

maximal oxygen uptake or max VO2

27

what is max VO2 measured as?

max VO2 is measured as the maximal volume of oxygen consumption recorded during a progressive exercise test to exhaustion

28

predictions based on the _____ relationship between heart rate and workload can be made over a given workload range

linear

29

with increasing workload, ________ increases to a maximum that corresponds to a maximal oxygen consumption (max VO2)

heart rate

30

flexibility

the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion

31

what is flexibility determined by?

determined by joint structure, muscle length, and muscle elasticity

32

what 3 things is flexibility affected by?

- age
- gender
- inactivity

33

what are the 3 benefits of flexibility?

- good joint health
- slowed joint deterioration
- improved quality of life

34

what can flexibility prevent?

back pain and injuries

35

_______ is important for flexibility

collagen

36

what is the main structural protein in connective tissues?

collagen

37

collagen provides structure and support to what 4 things?

tendons, tissues, ligaments and joints

38

______ (protein in connective tissue) allows muscles to be stretched

elastin

39

what are the 3 basic stretching methods?

1) static stretching
2) dynamic or ballistic stretching
3) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching

40

static stretching method

- holding a fully stretched position
- slow relaxation of muscles to be stretched

41

how long is static stretching held for?

10-30 seconds

42

how many times should static stretching be repeated?

4-6 times

43

dynamic stretching method

- rapidly moving a joint through its full range of motion
- involves stretching with repetitive bouncing movements, using small intervals

44

which stretching method increases amplitude range

dynamic stretching method

45

when is the maximal range achieved for dynamic stretching method?

10-20 movements

46

how many times is dynamic stretching repeated?

3-5 times

47

what is the most efficient stretching method?

PNF method

48

_____ stretching method exploits the muscle spindles and the golgi tendon organs (the stretch reflex)

PNF stretching method

49

true or false: the PNF stretching method involves a partner

true

50

what are the 3 stages to the PNF stretching method?

1) Active Stretching Phase
2) Pre-Tension Phase
3) Passive Stretching Phase

51

active stretching phase

muscles are actively pulled to the limit of the movement range

52

true or false: active stretching phase is performed fast and staggered

FALSE: active stretching phase is performed slow and continuously

53

what does active stretching phase inhibit?

inhibits muscle spindles from inducing stretch reflex (and prevents muscles from contracting)

54

Pre-tension phase

trainee exerts a full isometric (static) contraction against partner resistance

55

how long is pre-tension phase held for?

held for 7-10 seconds

56

_________ causes tendon spindles to release inhibitory relaxation of the muscles to be stretched

Pre-tension phase

57

Passive Stretching Phase

partner pushes the body further into the stretching position, to pain moderate discomfort

58

how long is the final position of the passive stretching phase held for (with muscles relaxed)?

6-10 seconds

59

True or false: for passive stretching phase the partner applies slow and constant pressure

true

60

body composition

refers to the amounts of fat, muscle, bone and other organs that make up the body

61

what 2 percentages are at primary interest for body composition?

percentages of lean body mass and fat body mass

62

what 2 things is physical fitness generally associated with?

1) a reduced body fat content
2) increased lean body mass

63

what does psychomotor ability serve to integrate?

serves to integrate the central nervous system with the more physical components of fitness

64

what is psychomotor ability important to?

important to functioning and performance in everyday and fitness environments

65

what is psychomotor ability related to?

related to an athletes ability to adapt and respond to changes in their surroundings

66

state 10 training components to consider

1) training time
2) frequency of exercising
3) intensity of exercising
4) volume of training
5) work-to-rest ratio
6) type of exercise
7) order of exercises
8) number of repetitions per set
9) number of sets
10) recovery periods between exercises

67

training time

refers to the total time devoted to developing fitness

68

what is training time based on?

based on the duration of each training session and frequency of training per week, month, or year

69

what does training frequency depend on?

depends on the goals of the individual

70

how many times may athletes train per week for strength and cardiovascular endurance?

2-10 times per week

71

how many sessions per week may be sufficient to maintain levels of strength and endurance for general fitness training?

2-3 sessions per week

72

how many times per week does someone have to train for weight loss or strength or endurance gains?

4-6 sessions per week

73

training volume

refers to the sum total of work performed during a training session or phase of training

74

how is training volume measured?

measured in various units depending on the type of activity

75

______ movements (walking, running, swimming, etc.) are measured in meters or kilometres as a measure of distance

cyclic movements

76

strength exercises using body weight are measured by _________ and the number of exercises done

by the number of repetitions performed

77

how are strength exercises using weights measured?

strength exercises using weight are measured by the sum of all weight lifted per session, and the number of repetitions performed with a given load

78

what is probably the most important component of strength training?

Training intensity

79

what does training intensity characterize

training intensity characterizes the degree of stimulation or intensity of exercise per unit of time

80

how is training intensity measured?

measured in various units depending on the type of activity

81

how is training intensity expressed?

expressed as a percentage of a trainees personal best or 100% performance in the activity

82

______ becomes the benchmark, or starting point, for defining relative intensities to be used to plan workouts

training intensity

83

work-to-rest ratio

refers to the relationship between the phases of work and rest during training

84

true or false: in general, the lower the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the shorter the rest periods required

true

85

true or false: the higher the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the longer the rest periods must be

true

86

warm-up and cool-down

loosening up and relaxation exercises performed before and after training are beneficial

87

list 3 benefits of warm up

1) raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange
2) increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains
3) increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time

88

list 2 benefits of cool down

1) helps speed recovery from bout of exercise
2) helps physiological systems return to normal levels

89

what is important to do during a cool down?

replenish the fluid complex (will show a deficit the next day if you don't)