Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Enhancing Health, Study, Work and Play through Physical Fitness Deck (89)
fitness includes what 6 things?
1) Cardiorespiratory endurance
3) body composition
4) muscular strength
5) muscular power
6) muscular endurance
define physical fitness
the ability of the body to adjust to the demands and stresses of physical effort
what is physical fitness thought to be a measure of?
physical fitness is thought to me a measure of ones physical health
define physical activity
any movement carried out by the skeletal muscles
physical activity requires the use of ______
the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance
true or false: muscular strength is commonly measured as a maximal value
what is a synonym for strength?
greater muscle mass results in?
greater muscle mass results in greater strength
force = ____ x _____
force = mass x acceleration
the ability to overcome external resistance at a high rate of muscular contraction
what is the ability to exert fore dependent on?
_______ is a derivative of muscular strength
the ability of a muscle or muscle group to sustain a given level of force (static, exercise) or to repeatedly contract and relax (dynamic exercise) at a given resistance
what is an example of static exercise?
the flexed arm hang is an example of a static exercise
what is an example of a dynamic exercise?
sit-ups are an example of a dynamic exercise
training should include exercises that stimulate both the ______ and the ______
agonists and antagonists
what 2 things happen when you focus only on increasing agonist strength?
1) tends to shorten the agonist muscles
2) tends to weaken the antagonist muscles
the ability to produce energy through an improved delivery of oxygen to working muscles
what 2 systems does cardiorespiratory endurance involve?
involves cardiovascular system and respiratory system
what is the major function of the cardiorespiratory system?
to provide oxygen to tissues
what is the cardiorespiratory system needed for?
exertion over longer periods of time
the maximal rate at which the body can take up, transport, and utilize oxygen
what is the maximal rate at which the body can take up, transport, and utilize oxygen expressed as?
maximal oxygen uptake or max VO2
what is max VO2 measured as?
max VO2 is measured as the maximal volume of oxygen consumption recorded during a progressive exercise test to exhaustion
predictions based on the _____ relationship between heart rate and workload can be made over a given workload range
with increasing workload, ________ increases to a maximum that corresponds to a maximal oxygen consumption (max VO2)
the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion
what is flexibility determined by?
determined by joint structure, muscle length, and muscle elasticity
what 3 things is flexibility affected by?
what are the 3 benefits of flexibility?
- good joint health
- slowed joint deterioration
- improved quality of life
what can flexibility prevent?
back pain and injuries
_______ is important for flexibility
what is the main structural protein in connective tissues?
collagen provides structure and support to what 4 things?
tendons, tissues, ligaments and joints
______ (protein in connective tissue) allows muscles to be stretched
what are the 3 basic stretching methods?
1) static stretching
2) dynamic or ballistic stretching
3) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching
static stretching method
- holding a fully stretched position
- slow relaxation of muscles to be stretched
how long is static stretching held for?
how many times should static stretching be repeated?
dynamic stretching method
- rapidly moving a joint through its full range of motion
- involves stretching with repetitive bouncing movements, using small intervals
which stretching method increases amplitude range
dynamic stretching method
when is the maximal range achieved for dynamic stretching method?
how many times is dynamic stretching repeated?
what is the most efficient stretching method?
_____ stretching method exploits the muscle spindles and the golgi tendon organs (the stretch reflex)
PNF stretching method
true or false: the PNF stretching method involves a partner
what are the 3 stages to the PNF stretching method?
1) Active Stretching Phase
2) Pre-Tension Phase
3) Passive Stretching Phase
active stretching phase
muscles are actively pulled to the limit of the movement range
true or false: active stretching phase is performed fast and staggered
FALSE: active stretching phase is performed slow and continuously
what does active stretching phase inhibit?
inhibits muscle spindles from inducing stretch reflex (and prevents muscles from contracting)
trainee exerts a full isometric (static) contraction against partner resistance
how long is pre-tension phase held for?
held for 7-10 seconds
_________ causes tendon spindles to release inhibitory relaxation of the muscles to be stretched
Passive Stretching Phase
partner pushes the body further into the stretching position, to pain moderate discomfort
how long is the final position of the passive stretching phase held for (with muscles relaxed)?
True or false: for passive stretching phase the partner applies slow and constant pressure
refers to the amounts of fat, muscle, bone and other organs that make up the body
what 2 percentages are at primary interest for body composition?
percentages of lean body mass and fat body mass
what 2 things is physical fitness generally associated with?
1) a reduced body fat content
2) increased lean body mass
what does psychomotor ability serve to integrate?
serves to integrate the central nervous system with the more physical components of fitness
what is psychomotor ability important to?
important to functioning and performance in everyday and fitness environments
what is psychomotor ability related to?
related to an athletes ability to adapt and respond to changes in their surroundings
state 10 training components to consider
1) training time
2) frequency of exercising
3) intensity of exercising
4) volume of training
5) work-to-rest ratio
6) type of exercise
7) order of exercises
8) number of repetitions per set
9) number of sets
10) recovery periods between exercises
refers to the total time devoted to developing fitness
what is training time based on?
based on the duration of each training session and frequency of training per week, month, or year
what does training frequency depend on?
depends on the goals of the individual
how many times may athletes train per week for strength and cardiovascular endurance?
2-10 times per week
how many sessions per week may be sufficient to maintain levels of strength and endurance for general fitness training?
2-3 sessions per week
how many times per week does someone have to train for weight loss or strength or endurance gains?
4-6 sessions per week
refers to the sum total of work performed during a training session or phase of training
how is training volume measured?
measured in various units depending on the type of activity
______ movements (walking, running, swimming, etc.) are measured in meters or kilometres as a measure of distance
strength exercises using body weight are measured by _________ and the number of exercises done
by the number of repetitions performed
how are strength exercises using weights measured?
strength exercises using weight are measured by the sum of all weight lifted per session, and the number of repetitions performed with a given load
what is probably the most important component of strength training?
what does training intensity characterize
training intensity characterizes the degree of stimulation or intensity of exercise per unit of time
how is training intensity measured?
measured in various units depending on the type of activity
how is training intensity expressed?
expressed as a percentage of a trainees personal best or 100% performance in the activity
______ becomes the benchmark, or starting point, for defining relative intensities to be used to plan workouts
refers to the relationship between the phases of work and rest during training
true or false: in general, the lower the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the shorter the rest periods required
true or false: the higher the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the longer the rest periods must be
warm-up and cool-down
loosening up and relaxation exercises performed before and after training are beneficial
list 3 benefits of warm up
1) raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange
2) increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains
3) increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time
list 2 benefits of cool down
1) helps speed recovery from bout of exercise
2) helps physiological systems return to normal levels