Chapter 9 - Sports nutrition and energy metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Sports nutrition and energy metabolism Deck (140)
1

respiration

The process of producing energy from fuels using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide and water

2

VO2 max

The maximum amount of oxygen that can be supplied at any instant in an individual

3

aerobic

The condition of producing energy through processes that require oxygen

Having sufficient oxygen to do so

4

Anaerobic

The condition of producing energy through processes that do not require oxygen

Not having sufficient oxygen to produce energy through other processes

5

How much fat do people store?

5,000 kcals of fat

6

How much carbohydrate do people store?

2,000 kcal of carbs

7

Overtraining

A physical state of staleness, tiredness, and even deconditioning caused by too much training and too little recovery

Possibly exacerbated by inadequate nutrition

8

Aerobic activity

Any type of exercise that increases heart rate qualifies as aerobic

9

What does strength training do to basal metabolism

Increases basal metabolism more than aerobic

10

Plyometrics

A strength training method characterized by a rapid stretch of the muscle prior to contraction

11

Immediate energy system

A system that releases energy stored in creatine phosphate for rapid maximal muscle contraction of very short duration

12

Anaerboic glycolysis

The process that splits glucose into pyruvate and releases energy to ATP and NADH

13

Aerobic metabolism

A series of processes that begins with the conversion of pryuvate co acetyl CoA, proceeds to the citric acid cycle, and ends with the electron transport chain; aerobic metabolism produces NADH, H+, FADH2, ATP, CO2 and water, and requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor

14

ATP

 

When in use: At all times

Ex. All types

15

Phosphocreatine (PCr)

When in use: All exercise initially; short bursts of exercise thereafter

16

Carbohydrate (anaerobic)

When in use: High intensity exercise; especially lasting 30 seconds to 2 minutes

ex. 200 yard sprint

17

Carbohydrate (aerobic)

When in use: exercise lasting 2 minutes to 3 hours or more; the higher the intensity (6 minute mile), the greater the use

Ex. Basketball, swimming, jogging

18

Fat (aerobic)

When in use: exercise lasting more than a few minutes; greater amounts are used at lower exercise intensities

Ex. Long-distance running

Ex. Long distance cycling

Ex. 30 minute brisk walk

19

Protein (aerobic)

When in use: Low amount during all exercise; slightly more in endurance exercise, especially when carb fuel is lacking

Ex. Long-distance running

20

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Common energy source of the body

21

Inorganic phosphate (Pi)

Simple phosphate groups incorporated into ATP and other molecules and then released in order to transfer energy

22

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

High-energy chemical compound used to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes

23

Creatine phosphate (CP)

High-energy chemical compound used to store and release energy in the immediate energy system

24

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

An intermediary fromed from the vitamin niacin that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP

25

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

An intermediary, formed from the vitamin riboflavin, that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP

26

Niacin

A B-vitamin used as the basis of NAD+

27

Riboflavin

a B-vitamin used as the basis of FAD

28

pyruvate (pyruvic acid)

A three-carbon molecule formed from glucose in anaerobic glycolysis

29

lactate (lactic acid)

A three-carbon molecule formed from pyruvate.

Excess lactate is shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose via the Cori cycle

30

Cori cycle

The process by which accumulated lactate is shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose and returned to muscle.

The Cori cycle provides a means to deal with the pyruvate that accumulates during anaerobic glycolysis

31

Coenzyme A

A compound formed from the B-vitamin pantothenic acid that is combined with pyruvate to create acetyl CoA, which then enters the cirtric acid cycle

32

pantothenic acid

a B-vitamin used to form coenzyme A, which activates pyruvate for entry into the citric acid cycle

33

acetyl CoA

formed from pyruvate and coenzyme A

allows pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle

34

citric acid cycle

The pathway by which acetyl CoA combines with oxalocetate and through a series of reactions, yields NADH, H+, FADH2, ATP, CO2, and finallly returns to oxalocetate, ready to start the cycle again with another acetyl CoA

35

krebs cycle

Another name for the citric acid cycle

36

tCA cycle

another name for the citric acid cycle

37

oxalocetate

a four-carbon compound that begins and ends the citric acid cycle

Reacts with acetyle CoA to begin the cycle

38

citric acid

the six-carbon compound that is the product of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle

39

Electron transport chain

A series of carrier molecules that transfer the high energy electrons of NADH and FADH along to ATP

Their energy is stored in ATP's phosphate bonds until the electrons are passed to oxygen so that they combine with hydrogen to form water

40

three types of carbohydrate

1. Glucose that circulates in the blood

2. Glycogen in the liver

3. Glycogen in muscle

41

gluconeogenesis

The process by which the amino group is removed from amino acids and they are converted to glucose

break down body proteins to produce glucose

42

High carbohydrate diets relationship to training

increases the time it takes to reach exhaustion

43

Low GI contain

starch

44

High GI contain

sugars

45

mitochondria

the cell structure where most of the reactions in the aerobic production of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein take place

46

Carnitine

A compound formed from amino acids which shuttles activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation

47

beta-oxidation

The process by which fatty acids are metabolized, in which they are shortened two carbons at a time and combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl Co for entry into the citric acid cycle

48

ketone bodies

Compounds that are produced when fat is used for energy balance because of insufficient dietary carbohydrate

Without carbs, oxaloacetate cannot be replenished and acetyl CoA from fat cannot enter the citric acid cycle

The excess acetyl CoA is converted into ketone bodies

49

Predominant fuel used in low-intensity exercise

Fat

50

carbon skeletons

The carbon framework of an amino acid

51

glucogenic

Amino acids which are made into pyruvate and then into glucose through gluconeogenesis

52

Ketogenic

Amino acids which are made into acetyl CoA for entry into the citric acid cycle, but which cannot be used in gluconeogenesis to make glucose

53

Female ahthlete triad characteristics

1. disordered eating

2. amenorrhea

3. premature osteoporosis

54

Amenorrhea

The cessation of normal menstrual periods

Caused by low estrogen levels in the body

leads to osteoporosis

55

Premature Osteoporosis

Thinning and weakening of bones due to a loss of bone mineral

56

Percent of body's energy needs from protein

10 percent

57

Gluconeogenesis important when?

Fasting 

Low carbohydrate diets

prolonged exercise

58

Exercise increases what?

Protein requirements

59

Grams of protein for active people

1.2-1.6 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight

60

Best sources of protein

Beans, low-fat dairy products, and vegetables

*Protein supplements are unnecessary*

61

100 meter dash (10-15 seconds or intensity)

Energy supplied by the immediate energy system and anaerobic glycolysis

62

What does the body use ATP for?

to capture the energy from all the macronutrients using a variety of pathways

63

Egrogenic aids

Substances that enhance physical performance

Examples: caffeine, carnitine, ephedra, creatine, ginseng

64

What does caffeine do?

Helps release fat stores into the blood stream

65

Carnitine

The substance that transports fatty acids into the mitochondria for metabolism

66

Ephedra

Herbal stimulant used for weight loss

side effects: high blood pressure, heart irregularities, and nausea

67

Creatine

Reult in higher levels of creatine phosphate in the muscle cells

68

Zinc

Body needs zinc to make new cells

Helps control tissue growth and injury repair

Immune system needs zinc to function at its best

Sources: meat, seafood, dairy products, whole grains, and seeds

69

Excess zinc?

Inhibits the immune system and reduces absorption of other minerals

70

Potassium

The major positively charged intracellular ion

Vital for muscle contraction and conduction of nerve impulses

Sources: most fruits and vegetables

71

Potassium and sweat

Significant amounts of potassium can be lost in sweat so exercise during hot weather can increase potassium needs

72

Inadequate potassium?

Can impair performance and may cause  muscle cramping

73

Excess potassium

Excreted by the kidneys

high intakes a problem for peope with kidney disease

74

intracellular

inside cells

75

Iron

A component of myglobin

required in muscle building

Plays a role in energy metabolism as a component of the electron transport chain

76

Chormium

Helps insulin bind to its receptor on the cell and is important for synthesis of muscle protein and glycogen

Sources: unprocessed foods and whole grains

77

Chromium supplements

Increase strength gains from training and may increase lean body mass

May be associated with kidney and chromosome damage

78

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

Necessary for protein synthesis 

Important in muscle repair and growth

Needed for synthesis of non-essential amino acids

Without B6 all amino acids are essential

79

Deficiency of Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

Limits development of lean tissue

80

High doses of Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

May cause neurological damage

81

Vitamin C

Involved in the synthesis of collagen

Sources: fruits and vegetables

82

Vitamin C deficiency

Causes poor wound healing and deterioration of connective tissue

Old scares may open, woulds cannot heal, muscles cannot recover

83

More than 2,000 mg/day of Vitamin C

May cause GI upset

May contribute to oxidative damage to cells

Body can become dependent on high doses from supplements so that if they are discontinued the body develops rebound scurvy

84

Collagen

The primary protein found in connective tissue

Vitamin C is involved in its synthesis

85

Scurvy

The disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C

86

Antioxidants

Protect muscle and red blood cells from oxidative damage

Neutralize free radicals

Help protect us from heart disease and cancer

Aerobic exercise increases need for antioxidants

87

Free radical

A highly reactive species of oxygen or other substance capable of damaging cell components and contributing to cancer and heart disease

88

Vitamin C also acts as what?

An antioxidant

water-soluble vitamin

89

Vitamin E

Antioxidant

Fat-soluble vitamin

Significant antioxidant

Sources: seeds, nuts, seed oils, and vegetables

Best source: wheat germ

90

Vitamin E deficiency

Can cause hemolysis

91

Excessive intake of vitamin E

May interfere with absorption of vitamin K

92

Hemlolysis

Red blood cells break down when they are not protected against oxidative damage

Caused by a deficiency of Vitamin E

93

Selenium

Antioxidant

component of the glutathione peroxidases

Sources: meats, seafood, and whole grains

94

High doses of selenium

Selenium toxicity - causes loss of hair and nails

95

glutathione peroxidase

A group of anti-oxidant enzymes

96

Carotenoids

Best-known = beta carotene

antioxidant activity

sources: fruits and vegetables (colorful ones because carotenoids are strong pigments)

 

97

High levels of carotenoids

Contribute to oxidative damage

Impossible from vegetables and fruits, yet a real concern with supplements

98

Beta-carotene

Best-known carotenoid

Body uses it to make vitamin A

99

Hemoglobin

Iron-containing portein found in red blood cells

binds with oxygen in the lungs and releases it in the muscles

Transports carbon dioxide back from muscles to the lungs

100

Erythropoiesis

synthesis of red blood cells

101

erythrocytes

red blood cells

102

Folate

important for cell division to produce new red blood cells

necessary for the formation of the new DNA

Sources: dark leafy greens, beans, and orange juice

103

Insufficient folate

cell division cannot occur and cells continue to grow big without dividing

causes macrocytic anemia

104

High intake of folate

Can mask symptoms of viamin B-12 deficiency

105

Macrocytic

A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too big, caused by folic acid deficiency (folate)

106

Vitamin B-12

Regenerates folate after it has been used by the cell

Sources: only animal products: meats, fish, poultry, and dairy products

107

Vitamin B-12 deficiency

produces a secondary deficiency of folate

vegetarians at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency

 

108

High intake of vitamin B-12

no negative consequences

109

Vitamin B-6

Helps to synthesize hemoglobin

110

Vitamin B-6 deficiency

Results in inadequate amounts of hemoglobin for red blood cell production

111

Micocytic anemia

A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too small

Caused by iron deficiency

112

Athletes and iron

Blood volume increases in athletes so need more iron

113

Readily absorbed forms of iron

Meat

Fish

Poultry

114

Less readily absorbed forms of iron

Dark leafy greens

Beans

Dried fruits

Fortified cereals

other plant foods

115

Vitamin C deficiency

Can contribute to the development of iron deficiency

116

117

Defiency of B-vitamins

Exhaustion

Weakness

Fatigue

Lethargy

Loss of coordination

118

Niacin

Used to make nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

Mostly found in high-protein foods

119

High doses of niacin

severe flushing

Liver damage

120

Riboflavin

made into flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

Sources: milk and dark leafy greens

121

Thiamin

used to make the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)

important for nerve and muscle metabolism

Sources: foods high in protein and whole grains

122

thiamin definition

a B-vitamin used as the basis of TPP

123

thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)

a coenzyme which helps convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA and participates in the citric acid cycle

124

Adequate intakes of calcium

needed to achieve high bone mineral density

125

Sources of calcium

Dairy products and dark leafy greens

126

Vitamin D

necessary for absorption of calcium from the gut

Source: fluid milk

Can come from sun

127

Vitamin D deficiency

creates a calcium deficiency

malformation of bone - rickets

 

128

Vitamin K

Helps maintain the protein matrix of bone

Sources: green leafy and cruciferous vegetables

129

Vitamin K defiency

contribute to bone fractures

130

Excessive intake of Vitamin A

may weaken bone

caused by overuse of fortified foods and supplements

131

Body's main method of losing heat?

sweating

132

Exercise in hot weather

lose as much as one to three liters of sweat per hour

133

Dehydration

2-3% of body weight as water

Cause death

heat stroke

loss of electrolytes

acute kidney failure

poor decisions

134

electrolyte

an atom which carries an electrical charge because of loss or gain of elecrons and is found dissolved in fluid

135

hyponatremia

The condition of having a low concentration of sodium in the blood

Over drinking water

136

Sodium and potassium

most important electrolytes lost in sweat

137

Hypokalemia

The condition of having a low concentration of potassium in the blood

138

Isotonic

A fluid with solute concentrations equal to those found in body fluids

Sports drinks

139

Hypertonic

A fluid with solute concentrations greater than those found in bodily fluids

soft drinks

140