Chapters 7 and 8 Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Chapters 7 and 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 7 and 8 Deck (81):
1

Learning

Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

2

Behaviorism

What are the underlying principles that guide learning

3

Associative learning

Learn to associate two events when they occur one right after the other

4

Classical Conditioning

Learning to behave a certain way with a certain stimulus

5

Pavlov's original experiments

Working on how dogs salivate

6

Conditioned

learned

7

Unconditioned

Automatic/innate

8

Stimulus

Something in the environment

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Response

Behavior the organism does when the stimulus is present

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Extinction

Present CS w/o US repeatedly, CS stops

11

Spontaneous Recovery

After extinction, present CS after rest period, triggers CR

12

Generalization

Weaker response to a similar stimulus

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Discrimination

Can train to only respond to stimulus trained on, gets rid of generalization

14

Biology in classical conditioning

We are prepared to make certain associations

15

Cognition in classical conditioning

Thinking can lessen association

16

Operant Conditioning

Reinforcing behavior

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Skinner Box

Box with lever, food dispenser, and electrical floor

18

Shaping

Reinforcements that gradually guide actions toward a desired behavior

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Reinforcement

Any event that increases the frequency of behavior

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Positive

Adding something to the situation

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Negative

Taking something away

22

Primary

Innately important to learner

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Secondary

Have to learn, associated with primary reinforcer (i.e. money)

24

Immediate

Happens immediately to the learner

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Delayed

Some period of time before reinforcement

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Continuous

Response is reinforced every time

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Partial

Give reinforcement only sometimes

28

Is partial or continuous learned and unlearned quickly?

Continuous

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Fixed interval

Same amount of time

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Variable interval

Unpredictable amount of time

31

Fixed ratio

Same number of times

32

Variable ratio

Unpredictable number of times

33

Punishment

Decreases frequency of behavior (positive or negative)

34

Biology in operant conditioning

Easiest to learn to associate behaviors that help you to survive

35

Cognition in operant conditioning

Still learn and think without reinforcement

36

Bandura's work

Bobo doll (TV)- kids who saw violence towards the doll played with it violently

37

Observational learning

modelling

38

Applications of observational learning

Gets rid of phobias

39

Memory

Ability to store and retrieve information that has been learned

40

Flashbulb memory

Perfectly clear memory triggered by emotion

41

Clive

Hippocampus destroyed, cannot remember/process new things

42

S

Amazing memory, memorize by associating with place

43

Normal memory

remember meaning not detail

44

Information processing model

Encoding>StoringRetrieving

45

Encoding

Getting info into the memory system

46

Things Automatically processed

Space/location; Time; Frequency

47

Effortful Processing

Have to put in a conscious effort

48

Spacing effect

Space out studying and come back to it several times to remember better

49

Serial position effect

Remember things a the beginning and end better

50

Time spent

More=better

51

Chunking

(7-+2) Remember significant chunks better (Phone #, SSN)

52

Mnemonics

Study aides

53

Hierarchies

General topics are broken into more specific ones (textbook)

54

Meaningful

Personally relevant

55

Forgetting due to encoding

Encoding failure

56

Storage

Retaining

57

Sensory memory

Pre-sensation, extremely brief

58

Iconic memory

Momentary visual sensory memory

59

How long is an iconic memory

1/20 sec

60

Echoic memory

Momentary auditory sensory memory

61

How long is an echoic memory

3-4 sec

62

Short term memory

Current consciousness

63

Capacity of short term memory

7-+2

64

Duration of short term memory

30 sec

65

Long term memory capacity and duration

none

66

Neurotransmitters and hormones

More hormones= more neurotransmitters firing

67

Explicit/ declarative memory

Consciously know that we know (facts, dates, names, experiences)

68

Where is explicit memory controlled?

Hippocampus and frontal lobe

69

Implicit/ procedural memory

Perform action skillfully w/o being aware

70

Where is implicit memory controlled?

Cerebellum and basal ganglia

71

Retrieval

Getting info back

72

Recall

On the spot generation of info

73

recognition

ID correct info

74

Relearning

Knew it, forgot it, learn faster second time

75

Priming

When you ID an associated idea that leads you to related info

76

Context

Remember info better if you are in the same situation

77

Interference

Info in memory system is being blocked by something related

78

Proactive/ forward interference

Old blocks new

79

Retroactive/ backward interference

New blocks old

80

Motivated forgetting

Fred's idea, want to forget certain (painful) memories (this is a false concept)

81

Memory construction

We construct our memories but can distinguish when we've altered our memories