Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (54):
1

Continuity vs stages

What parts of development are gradual, and when there are abrupt changes

2

Stability vs changes

What traits are stable and which show a lot of change

3

Maturation

Orderly sequence of biological growth

4

Teratogen

Harmful environmental substance during pregnancy

5

Reflexes

Genetically based behaviors

6

Rooting reflex

When cheek is stroked, infant will turn his head in that direction and opens his mouth

7

Sucking reflex

Something is placed by the mouth, infant will suck

8

Grasping reflex

When the palm is touched, infant makes a fist

9

Moro/ startle reflex

When infant is dropped, he will fling out his arms and legs and spread his fingers and toes

10

Walking reflex

When the infant's weight is supported, he will move his legs and feet in a walking motion

11

Schema

concept/ way to organize information

12

Stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor
Pre-operational
Concrete-operational
Formal operational

13

Sensorimotor

Discovering the world using developing senses and motor skills

14

When is the sensorimotor stage?

Birth- 2 years

15

Pre-operational

Egocentrism, play pretend, use symbols

16

When is the pre-operational stage?

2-7

17

Egocentrism

Cannot take another's point of view

18

Concrete-operational

Math, thinking logically, conservation

19

When is the concrete-operational stage?

7-11

20

Conservation

Something maintains its amount even if the shape changes

21

Formal operational

Abstract thought, moral reasoning

22

When is the formal operational stage?

11-adulthood

23

Attachment

Emotional bond of love and security in infancy

24

Familiarity in infants

Prefer familiar faces

25

Body contact in infants

Prefer body contact

26

Parental Responsiveness is important for what?

Infant security

27

Secure attachment

Tend to be more confident, outgoing, enthusiastic, persistent, and responsive

28

Emotional deprivation

Abnormal development, didn't socially connect with people

29

Adolescence

Sexual maturity to achievement of adult status

30

Piaget's formal operations

Abstract thinking

31

Kohlberg's moral thinking

Stages of moral thinking

32

Levels of moral thinking

Pre-conventional
Conventional
Post-conventional

33

Pre-conventional

Morality of self-interest

34

Conventional

Morality of laws and social rules

35

Post-conventional

More complex morality

36

Pre-conventional stages

Avoid punishment
Gain reward

37

Conventional stages

Gain approval
Follow rules

38

Post-conventional

Affirm agreed upon rights
Act on personal ethical principles

39

What are criticisms to the levels of moral thinking

Cannot predict behavior
Experiments based on white, middle-class men

40

Who theorized social development

Erik Erikson

41

When is ID vs Role Confusion?

Adolescence

42

When is Intimacy vs Isolation?

Young Adulthood

43

When is emerging adulthood?

18-25

44

When is young adulthood?

25-40

45

When is middle adulthood?

40-65

46

When is late adulthood?

65+

47

Cognitive changes

Cognitive abilities decline with age, but experience increases

48

Cross-sectional research

Different people at different ages, all at the same point in time

49

Longitudinal research

Begin with a group of people at one ages, reexamine them at different ages

50

Midlife crisis

Pop culture thing; rare in real life

51

Social clock

Cultural prescription of the right age to do something

52

Two Dominant aspects of social development

love and work

53

love

establishing long term relationships

54

work

People are happier if they choose their own job