Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (57):
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Introspection

Careful self examination and reporting conscious experiences(looking inward)

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Wilhelm Wundt

Founder of psychology; established first scientific laboratory

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Structuralism

Uses introspection to reveal mind structure

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Edward Titchener

Founded structuralism

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William James

Functionalism

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Functionalism

Focuses on functions of behavior

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Behaviorism

Psychology should limit itself to the study of observable behavior

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John B Watson

Founder of behaviorism

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B. F. Skinner

Studied how behavior is shaped by rewards and punishments, behaviorism

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Behavior genetics perspective

Genes and environmental influence people

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Evolutional perspective

Focuses on natural selection and behavior

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Cognitive perspective

Focuses on how we encode, process, and store info

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Sociocultural perspective

How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

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Sociocultural influences

Peers, culture, society

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Research samples

Need to be broadly representative of populations to which they wish to generalize their findings

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Positive psychology

Emphasizes human virtues and assets, rather than weaknesses and deficits

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Clinical psychologists

evaluate and treat individuals with mental or psychological disorders

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Psychiatrists

Medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

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Mary Whiton Calkins

1st female APA president

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Margaret Floy Washburn

First woman in the U.S. to earn a PhD in psychology, 2nd APA female president

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Hypothesis

Testable prediction

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Theory

Explanation that predicts behavior/ events

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Variable

Factor or measure that varies within an experiment or among individuals

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Replication

Attempt to duplicate findings

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Case study method

In-depth study of one or more individuals

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Survey method

Structured interviews or questionnaires are used to gather information about groups of people

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Population

All individuals in the ground being studied

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Random sampling

Each individual on the population has an equal chance of being selected

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Naturalistic observation method

Careful observations of behavior in natural settings

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Experimental method

Manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions

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Independent variables

Factors manipulated in an experiment

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Dependent variables

Effects or outcomes of an experiment

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Control groups

Do not receive experimental treatment or intervention

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Random assignment

Randomly assigning subjects to experimental or control groups

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Placebo effects

Positive outcomes resulting from a participant's positive expectations about the treatment rather than the treatment itself

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Single-blind studies

Subjects are kept uninformed about whether they are receiving the experimental drug or the placebo

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Double-blind studies

Both participants and experimenters are kept uninformed about which participants are receiving the active drug and which are receiving the placebo

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Informed consent

Agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about the purposes and nature of the study

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Psychologists must protect what?

The confidentiality of participants

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Psychology

Study of behavior and mental processes

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Psychological influences

Fears, emotions, perceptions

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Biological influences

Genes, brain, hormones

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Psychodynamic perspective

Behavior from unconscious drives and conflicts

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Neuroscience perspective

How body and brain enable emotions, memories, and experiences

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Debrief

Explanation after experiment

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basic research

Aims to increase scientific knowledge

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applied research

Aims to solve practical problems

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positive psychology

Goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues

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hindsight bias

Believing you would have foreseen the results after knowing the outcome

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critical thinking

Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, assesses conclusions, etc...

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SQ3R

Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

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Confounding variables

Factor other than independent variable that might affect the experiment

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Operational definition

Statement used to define research variables

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Positive correlation

Direct relationship; increase together

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Negative correlation

Inverse relationship; one increases, other decreases

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Correlation coefficient

Index of relationship between two things; -1 to +1

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Experimental group

Those exposed to treatment