Cumulative part of the Final Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Cumulative part of the Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cumulative part of the Final Deck (277):
1

Nature vs nurture

What is the product of environment and what is the product of genetics?

2

Current Perspectives of Psychology

Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behavior Genetics (nature v nurture), Psychodynamic (Freud), Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social-cultural

3

Psychologist

Treats, assesses, and treats people, researches

4

Psychiatrist

medical emphasis

5

Hindsight Bias

Tendency to believe we would have seen the outcome

6

Critical Thinking

Examine, discern, evaluate, and assess info

7

Scientific method

Theory> hypothesis> testing> replication

8

Theory

Explanation that predicts behavior

9

Hypothesis

Testable prediction

10

Operational definition

Procedures used to define research variables

11

Replication

Repeating the study

12

Random sample

Everyone has an equal chance of being selected

13

Representative sample

Representative of the population

14

Case study

Study few individuals in great detail

15

Survey

More people with less detail

16

Wording effects

Need clear, unbiased wording

17

Naturalistic observation

Observing and recording info in a natural setting

18

Positive correlation

Both variables increase

19

Negative correlation

One variable increases while the other decreases

20

Illusory correlations

Believe there's a relationship when there's not

21

Experiment

Manipulate one variable and control for all others

22

Random assignment

Randomly assign people to groups

23

Independent variable

Variable that is manipulated

24

Dependent variable

Variable that is measured

25

Neuron

Nerve cell

26

Dendrite

Receive incoming info

27

Axon

Passes info on

28

Action potential

Electrical charge starting at dendrites and leaving through axon

29

Treshold

All or none

30

Synapse

Space between neurons

31

Vesicles

Release neurotransmitters

32

Neurotransmitters

Chemical that cross synapses

33

Acetycholene

Go from motor neurons to muscle

34

Endorphins

Natural Pain killer

35

Epinephrine

Adrenaline

36

Norepinephrine

Noradrenaline

37

Nervous System

Brain and nerves

38

CNS

Brain and spinal cord

39

PNS

Rest of nervous system

40

Somatic Nervous System

Transmits sensory input and directs voluntary motor output

41

Autonomic Nervous System

Automatic things

42

Sympathetic Nervous System

Arouses body

43

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Calms body down

44

Sensory neurons

Bring in sensory info

45

Interneurons

In CNS, communicate internally

46

Motor Neurons

Relay instructions, cause reactions

47

Brainstem

Reticular formation, medulla, cerebellum, and thalamus

48

Medulla

Controls heart and breathing

49

Thalamus

Passes info from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex

50

Reticular Formation

Connects the spinal cord to the thalamus and controls arousal and sleep

51

Cerebellum

Base of the brain which controls voluntary motor movement and balance

52

Corpus Callosum

Connects hemispheres

53

Limbic System

Hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus

54

Amygdala

Controls agression and fear

55

Hypothalamus

Below thalamus, Regulates pituitary gland temperature, thirst, and pleasure

56

Cerebral Cortex

All lobes

57

Frontal Lobe

Front of brain, Planning, decision making, personality

58

Occipital Lobe

Base of brain, visual info

59

Temporal Lobe

Auditory info

60

Parietal Lobe

Association areas

61

Motor Cortex

Sends outgoing messages for motor movement

62

Sensory Cortex

Receives sensory input from body

63

Association Areas

Routes info to the correct parts of the brain

64

Brain Plasticity

Ability of brain to modify itself after damage

65

Split Brain

Cut corpus callosum

66

Behavior Genetics

Genetics and environment on behavior

67

Twin Studies

Study identical twins separated at birth

68

Evolutionary Psychology

Study evolution on psychology

69

Natural Selection

Superior traits passed on

70

Consciousness

Awareness of self and environment

71

Selective Attention

Attention focused on small part of incoming stimuli

72

Circadian Rhythm

Internal biologica clock

73

Sleep Stages

Awake, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, REM

74

Sleep cycles

10/90 minutes of sleep is REM

75

Insomnia

Recurring problems falling and staying asleep

76

Narcolepsy

Bizarre periodic lapses directly into REM

77

Sleep apnea

Stop breathing while sleeping momentarily

78

Night terrors

Immense terror during sleep, no plot, no memory

79

Manifest content

Story line

80

Latent content

Underlying meaning

81

Hypnosis

Induced temporary state of heightened suggestibility

82

Dissociation

Split consciousness

83

Drug Tolerance

Takes more of drug to get desired effect

84

Physical Dependence

Physiological need for the drug; pain and cravings

85

Psychological Dependence

Need the drug to feel a certain way

86

Addiction

When someone physically needs the drug

87

Withdrawal

Discomfort and distress experienced when someone stops taking a drug

88

Psychoactive Drugs

Drugs that affect the Nervous System

89

Depressants

Slow system down; Alcohol, barbiturates, Opiates

90

Stimulants

Excite system; meth, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstacy

91

Hallucinogens

Perception without stimulation; Marijuana and LSD

92

Alcohol

Slows reactions, lowers inhibitions, makes sleepy

93

Barbiturates

Tranquilizer, impairs memory

94

Opiates

Opium, morphine, heroin, painkillers, OD stop breathing, addictive

95

Meth

Triggers dopamine release

96

Caffeine

Increases energy, widely used, tolerance and withdrawal

97

Nicotine

Addictive, tolerance, releases epinephrine, endorphins, and norepinephrine, energy boost, makes alert and calm

98

Cocaine

Blocks re-uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, euphoric rush, crash, aggression, crack is more intense

99

Ecstacy (MDMA)

Hallucinogen and stimulant, blocks re-uptake of serotonin, 3-4 hr high, increase in feelings of intimacy, permanently damages serotonin production, permanent memory damage

100

Marijuana

Amplifies sensations, not physically addictive, but psychologically, interferes with memory formation, stays in system for a week

101

LSD

Blocks serotonin, expectations influence experience, shapes to out of body experience, low oxygen intake

102

Stage 1 Sleep

Drowsing off

103

Stage 2 Sleep

Small bursts of brain activity; spindles

104

Stage 3 Sleep

Deep sleep; sleep walking, bed wetting

105

REM

Actively dreaming, body paralyzed

106

Developmental Psychology

Studies change through the lifespan

107

Prenatal Development

Vulnerable to teratogens, embryo to fetus etc

108

Maturation

Orderly sequence of biological growth

109

Critical period

Optimal period when exposure produces normal development

110

Cognition

Thinking, knowing and remembering

111

Assimilation

Putting new experiences into existing schemas

112

Piagets' stages

Stages of Abstract thinking

113

Egocentrism

Inability to see things from others' POV

114

Object Permanence

Realize objects don't cease to exist when removed from sight

115

Conservation

Objects retain same volume in different containers

116

Attachment

Emotional tie with another, important to children

117

Imprinting

Animals form attachments during critical pd

118

Temperament

General disposition

119

Adolescence

Sexual maturity-Achievement of independent adult status

120

Puberty

Reaching sexual maturity

121

Morality Development

3 Stages of moral thinking

122

Social Clock

Cultural perception of the right age to do something

123

Intelligence

Ability to learn

124

Cognitive aging

Get older, worse cognition but more experience

125

Preconventional level

Self interest- avoid punishment and gain reward

126

Conventional level

Law and social cues- gain approval and follow rules

127

Post-conventional level

Affirm agreed upon rights and act on personal ethical principles

128

Trust v mistrust

0-1; basic trust

129

Autonomy v shame and doubt

1-3; do things for themselves or doubt abilities

130

Initiative v guilt

3-6; Initiate tasks or feel guilty about trying yo be independent

131

Competence v inferiority

6-puberty; apply self or feel inferior

132

ID v role confusion

teen-20s; Refine sense of self or become confused

133

Intimacy v isolation

20s-40s; Form relationships or get isolated

134

Generativity v stagnation

40s-60s; Contribution to world or lack purpose

135

Integrity v despair

60s+; Satisfaction or failure looking back on life

136

Gender

Social/cultural aspect of being male/female

137

Gender roles

Outward expression of gender based on cultural expectations

138

Gender ID

Personal sense of being male/female

139

Sexual orientation

Enduring sexual attraction towards members of a particular gender

140

Gender Typing

Child's learning of his/her culture's gender roles

141

Social Learning Theory

Children are reinforced for gender appropriate behavior

142

Cognitive Schemas

Concepts/ mental categories

143

Developmental Sequence

ID gender age 2; gender permanent age 4-7; Older we get the less we stereotype

144

Biological origens of sexual orientation

All biological, no evidence for environmental influences

145

Prenatal influence of sexual orientation

Certain hormones predispose attraction to men

146

Fraternal birth order effect

Men with older brothers are more likely to be homosexual

147

Evolutionary perspective on gender differences in sexuality

Women have limited fertility, more cautious with casual sex

148

Drive-reduction theory

Needs and desires combine with incentives to make a drive which directs behavior which makes homeostasis

149

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Some needs must be met before others

150

Hunger

Hypothalamus controls hunger, we have a set point that keeps us around the same weight

151

Obesity

Extreme body weight; 65% Americans are overweight

152

Weight Control

Fat cells do not go away, only shrink; genetic role; must be active, avoid externals, etc..

153

Ostracism

Social Exclusion

154

Achievement motivation

Desire for accomplishment/ maintaining high standards

155

Intrinsic motivation

Motivated internally, do it because you want to

156

Extrinsic motivation

Motivated externally, do it because you have to

157

James-Lange Theory

Physiological arousal important for emotion. Stimuli>arousal>emotion

158

Cannon-Bard Theory

Stimuli>arousal and emotion

159

Schacter and Singer Two-Factor Theory

Stimuli> arousal and label>emotion

160

Arousal and Lie Detection

Guilt causes arousal, but not accurate because other emotions also trigger arousal

161

Nonverbal Communication

Facial expressions are universal, but gestures are not

162

Facial Expression and empathy

Feel what others feel, mimicking facial expressions can trigger the emotions

163

Motivation

Need/want that energizes/directs behavior

164

Need

Physiological deprivation

165

Want/desire

Innate human tendency

166

Drive

Activated State

167

Homeostasis

Normal resting state

168

Incentives

External stimulator that can activate us

169

Process

Incentives trigger needs/wants

170

Fundamental Attribution error

Attribute our behavior to the situation but others' behaviors to their personality

171

Attitudes

Affect and are affected by actions

172

Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon

Small favor helps people agree to larger request

173

Roles and Zimbardo's Prison Study

Behaviors when you are in a role change your beliefs. Believe what you act out

174

Obedience and Milgram's Study

Most people would shock someone to death to obey

175

Social Facilitation

Presence of others can improve performance in tasks you are good at

176

Social Loafing

Individuals put in less effort for group tasks

177

Deindividualization

No longer ID as an individual, just part of the crowd

178

Group Polarization

If everyone in the group thinks the same way, the thoughts are strengthened

179

Groupthink

Think it's better for everyone to agree than for an individual to decide; can lead to harmonious but stupid decisions

180

Prejudice

Unjustifiable attitude towards a group and its members

181

Discrimination

Negative behavior based on prejudices

182

Ingroup vs Outgroup. Ingroup bias

Favor members of one's own group

183

Just world Phenomenon

Idea that people get what they deserve

184

Aggression

Behavior intended to hurt and destroy

185

Frustration-Aggression Principle

More likely to aggress when frustrated

186

Attraction

Likelihood of developing a relationship

187

Mere-exposure effect

Familiarity breed fondness

188

Similarity

Opposites do not attract

189

Halo effect

Attractive people are more likely to be seen as the outside reflecting the inside and tend to be favored

190

Altruism

Unselfish regard for the welfare of others

191

Bystander effect

When others are present, feelings of responsibility are diminished

192

Learning

Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

193

Associative Learning

Learn to associate two events on right after the other

194

Classical Conditioning

Conditioned responses

195

Pavlov

Dogs and salivation

196

Unconditioned

Innate

197

Conditioned

Learned

198

Stimulus

Something in environment

199

Response

Behavior in presence of stimulus

200

Behaviorism

Focus on underlying principles that guide behavior

201

Extinction

Present CS w/o US a lot, CR will stop

202

Spontaneous recovery

After extinction, present CS after rest period, CR will return

203

Generalization

Weaker response to similar stimuli

204

Discrimination

Train to only respond to one stimulus, no generalization

205

Operant conditioning

Reinforcing behavior

206

Shaping

Reinforces gradual actions

207

Reinforcement

Event that increases behavior

208

Primary reinforcer

Need

209

Secondary reinforcer

Associated with primary reinforcer

210

Partial Reinforcement schedule

Reinforcer sometimes

211

Continuous Reinforcement schedule

Reinforcer every time

212

Interval Reinforcement schedule

Amount of time

213

Ratio Reinforcement schedule

Number of times

214

Fixed Reinforcement schedule

Same amounts

215

Variable Reinforcement schedule

Random amounts

216

Punishment

Decreases frequency of behavior

217

Cognitive map

Mental representation of the layout of one's environment

218

Latent learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive

219

Modelling

Learn by watching others

220

Recall

On the spot generation info

221

Recognition

ID correct info

222

Relearning

If you learned and forgot it, you learn it faster the second time

223

Encoding

Getting info in the memory system

224

Storage

Retaining info

225

Retrieval

Getting info back

226

Sensory memory

Pre-sensation, extremely brief

227

Short-term memory

Current consciousness

228

Long-term memory

Unlimited info storage

229

Working memory

Processing incoming short term memory and info from long term memory

230

Automatic Processing

Automatically processed, location, time, frequency

231

Effortful processing

Have to put in an effort

232

Implicit memory

Know that we know

233

Explicit memory

Perform action skillfully without being aware

234

Rehearsal

Repetition

235

Mnemonics

Study aide

236

Chunking

7+-2 chunks of info

237

Iconic memory

Momentary visual memory

238

Flashbulb memory

Triggered by emotion, perfectly clear

239

Echoic memory

Momentary auditory memory

240

Priming

When you ID a an associated idea that leads you to related info

241

Mood-congruent memory

Tendency to recall experiences that are congruent with one's mood

242

Serial position effect

Remember things at the beginning and end better

243

Forgetting

Inability to recall info

244

Amnesia

Forgetting certain info

245

Proactive interference

Old blocks new

246

Retroactive interference

New blocks old

247

Memory construction

We construct some memories and cannot differentiate from what is real and fake

248

Improving memory

Practice, study in breaks, mnemonics, etc...

249

Prototype

Best example of a group

250

Algorithms

Step by step systematic approach

251

Heuristics

Cognitive short cuts

252

Insight

Sudden flash of inspiration

253

Confirmation bias

Look only for info that confirms what we believe

254

Fixation

Can't stop looking at a problem in one way

255

Functional fixedness

Show lack of creativity about the function an object

256

Availability heuristic

Judgement based on availability of info in our memory

257

Overconfidence

Overestimating accuracy of current knowledge

258

Belief perseverance

Tendency to cling to our beliefs

259

Framing

Present same info in different ways

260

Components of creativity

Expertise, Imagination, Venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, supportive environment

261

Language

Spoken, written, gestured way we communicate

262

Stages of language development

Babbling (4 months), 1 word (1 yr), 2 words, (2 yrs), Sentences

263

Aphasia

Impairment of language

264

Broca's area

Controls language expression

265

Wernicke's area

Controls language reception

266

Animal thinking/language

Communicate without grammar

267

Linguistic determinism

Language shapes how we think

268

Intelligence

Ability to learn, solve problems, and use knowledge

269

General intelligence

One underlying factor for intelligence

270

Gardner's multiple intelligences

Language, logical/math, music, kinesthetic (Athlete), spacial reasoning, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist

271

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

Analytic, Creative, and practical

272

Standardization of intelligence tests

Test a large representation of group

273

Reliability of intelligence tests

Generally consistent scores across more than one administration

274

Validity of intelligence tests

Does it measure what it was meant to?

275

Genetic influences on intelligence

Related people score similarly

276

Environmental influences on intelligence

Education

277

Bias in intelligent testing

Cultural background