Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (69):
1

Axon

carries messages away to other neurons

2

Terminal buttons

Swellings at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched

3

Synapse

gap between neurons through which neurotransmitters carry neural impulses

4

Dendrites

Rootlike structures at the end of axons that receive neural impulses

5

Sensory neurons

Transmit information from sensory organs to the spinal cord and brain

6

Motor neurons

Transmit nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands

7

Interneurons

Nerve cells within the central nervous system

8

Glial cells

support neurons and form the myelin sheath

9

Myelin sheath

A layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of nerve impulses

10

All-or-none principle

Neurons will fire or not (like a gun)

11

Central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

12

neuron body

center of neuron

13

ratio of Glial cells to neurons

9/1

14

action potential

electrical charge that travels down the axon

15

neurotransmitters

chemicals that cross synapses

16

acetycholene

moves from motor neurons to muscles

17

endorphins

natural pain killers

18

What do drugs do?

mimic/ extend the effect of neurotransmitters

19

agonist

extends/excites/promotes effects

20

antagonist

blocks effects

21

homeostasis

normal resting state

22

Why is prolonged morphine use bad?

the body reduces how many endorphins it produces naturally

23

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

24

Peripheral Nervous System

Not Brain and spinal cord

25

Somatic nervous system

transmits sensory input and directs voluntary motor output

26

Autonomic nervous system

automatic things

27

sympathetic nervous system

arouses body

28

parasympathetic nervous system

calms us down

29

endocrine system

glands and hormones

30

adrenal glands

epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline and noradrenaline)

31

where are the adrenal glands?

above the kidneys

32

pituitary gland

controls other glands

33

What hormones does the pituitary gland release?

Growth, ones to make other glands release hormones, oxytocin

34

What controls the pituitary gland?

The hypothalamus

35

reticular formation

connects spinal cord to thalamus, controls arousal, sleep, and attention

36

medulla

swelling at top of spinal cord, controls heart and breathing

37

Where do nerves cross over to the other side of the brain

medulla

38

Where is the cerebellum?

base of brain,

39

thalamus

info form brain stem to cerebral cortex

40

limbic system

hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus

41

hippocampus

memory processing

42

amygdala

on ends of hippocampus, aggression and fear

43

hypothalamus

controls pituitary gland, below thalamus, regulates temperature, hunger, thirst; pleasure centers

44

cerebral cortex

all lobes (wrinkly stuff)

45

frontal lobe

front of brain, planning, decision-making, personality

46

parietal lobes

behind frontal, association area

47

occipital lobes

base, above cerebellum, visual info

48

temporal lobes

auditory, divided in two

49

motor cortex

sends out messages for motor movement

50

sensory cortex

receives sensory info from body

51

association area

routes info to correct areas of the brain

52

Where is language controlled

left hemisphere

53

aphasia

impaired language use due to damage on the left hemisphere

54

damage to Broca's area

can't form words

55

damage to Wernicke's area

can't interpret language

56

split brain

the corpus callosum is severed

57

corpus callosum

connects two hemispheres of brain

58

Right hemisphere functions

spacial, insight, sense of self

59

left hemisphere functions

language

60

EEG(Electroencephalogram)

gives amplified record of waves of electrical activity in the brain

61

PET(Positron Emission Tomograph) scan

color pics of brain, inject radioactive sugar

62

MRI(Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

picture of soft tissues

63

fMRI(functional)

shows brain activity by comparing blood flow

64

biological psychologists

study links between behavior and biology

65

treshold

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

66

nerve

bundle of axons

67

neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

68

epigenetics

environmental influences on gene expression

69

what does the cerebellum do?

controls voluntary motor movement, balance, coordination