Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Psy 201: Myers' Exploring Psychology > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (41):
1

Forming concepts

Mental category based on similarities

2

Prototypes

Best example of a group

3

Trial and error

Just start randomly guessing

4

Insight

Sudden flash of inspiration

5

Algorithms

Step by step systematic approach guaranteed to give a right answer eventually

6

Heuristics

Cognitive short cut, but no guarantee of a right answer but can save a lot of time

7

Confirmation bias

Look only for info that confirms what we believe

8

Fixation

Can't stop looking at a problem in one narrow way

9

Functional fixedness

Show lack of creativity about function of an object

10

Availability heuristic

Judgement based on availability of info in our memory

11

Overconfidence

Overestimating accuracy of current knowledge

12

Framing

Present same info in different ways

13

Belief perseverance

Tendency to cling to our beliefs

14

Creativity

Ability to produce ideas that are neutral and valuable

15

Language

Spoken/written/gestured way we communicate meaning

16

Babbling

4 months

17

1 word stage

1 year. Using word to communicate meaning

18

2 word stage

2 years. Telegraphic speech, noun and verb

19

sentences

Everything else

20

When do we lose the ability to hear foreign sounds?

10 months

21

Halophrase

1 word used for whole concept

22

Environment (Skinner) in Language

Certain sounds are reinforced for

23

Bio (Chomsky) in Language

Babies learn language too quickly for just reinforcement, exact grammar used that adults don't use

24

Animal Communication

Communication w/o grammar

25

Linguistic determinism

Language shapes thinking

26

Think in images

We can, but it's difficult

27

Intelligence

Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

28

Binet

Tested mental age for which kids would fall behind for France

29

Terman (IQ)

Identify brighter military people who might make good officers

30

Spearman's "g" factor

One underlying intelligence factor

31

Triarchic Theory (Sternburg)

Analytic, Creative, and Practical Intelligences

32

Analytic intelligence

Traditional intelligence

33

Creative intelligence

Insight and ability to see novel connections

34

Practical intelligence

How you adapt to environment

35

Multiple intelligences (Gardner)

Language, logical, musical, kinesthetic, spacial reasoning, interpersonal, interpersonal, naturalist

36

Assessing intelligence (Wechler)

10 scales of verbal and nonverbal intelligence testing

37

Standardized requirement

Tested on large representative group

38

Reliability requirement

Generally consistent scores across more than one test

39

Validity

Does it measure what it was designed to do?

40

Genetic determinant of intelligence

Related people tend to score similarly

41

Environment determinant of intelligent

Education