Cognitive Psychology Chapter I (8-12) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Chapter I (8-12) Deck (28):
1

What did contemporary researchers of Thorndike use that led from Associationism to Behaviorism?

Animal Experiments to probe stimulus-response relationships

2

Russian Nobel Prize winning physiologist:

Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936)

3

Effective conditioning requires ...

... contingency (eg. between food and conditioned stimulus)

4

The "father" of radical behaviorism:

John Watson (1878 - 1958)

5

According to John Watson psychologists should concentrate only on ...

... observable behavior.

6

According to John Watson thinking is mere ..

.. subvocalized speech.

7

Who believed that all forms of human behavior could be explained by behavior emitted in reaction to the environment?

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 - 1990)

8

Behaviorism dominated psychology for decades largely because of:

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 - 1990)

9

Who started to peak into the "black box" by highlighting the importance of the purpose and the plan for behavior?

Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959)

10

Sometimes viewed as a forefather of cognitive psychology:

Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959)

11

The fact that learning through observation (social learning) is possible is used as another criticism of ...

... behaviorism.

12

What maxim can be said to sum up the Gestalt perspective?

"The whole differs from the sum of its parts" (To understand the perception of a flower, for example, we would have to take into account the whole of the experience.)

13

What does Cognitivism have in common with Gestaltism?

The emphasize lies on internal mental processes.

14

What does Cognitivism have in common with Behaviorism?

The use of precise quantitative measures and analysis.

15

Who challenged the behaviorist view that the human brain is a passive organ responding to environmental stimuli?

the Watson student Karl Spencer Lashley (1890 - 1958)

16

Lashley considered the brain to be …

… active and dynamic.

17

Who and when proposed cell assemblies as the basis of learning?

Donald Hebb 1949

18

Skinner wrote a book (1957) on how language acquisition and usage could be explained purely in terms of environmental contingencies. What happened next?

This book stretched Skinner's framework too far and Noam Chomsky (1959) wrote a scathing review of Skinner's ideas.

19

One notion Chomsky used to smash Skinner's ideas:

The ability to produce an infinite number of sentences that could not have been learned by reinforcement.

20

What is the name (and abbreviation) of the internal structure that guides our acquisition of language?

language acquisition device (LAD)

21

When did Turing propose his Turing test?

1950

22

Name one of the most famous early articles of cognitive psychology!

"the magic number seven" - George Miller (1956)

23

What was (among other) introduced in Miller's "the magic number seven"?

the concept of "channel capacity"

24

How did Ulric Neisser define cognitive psychology in his book "Cognitive Psychology"?

The study of how people learn, structure, store and use knowledge/information.

25

Who proposed detailed models of human thinking in 1972?

Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon

26

Who and when did popularize the concept of modularity of mind?

Jerry Fodor (1973)

27

What does the modularity of mind by Fodor imply?

Modularity implies that processes are domain specific and operate independently of processes in other domains.

28

The idea of modularity can be traced back to …

… phrenologist Franz-Joseph Gall. Phrenology: the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.