Cognitive Psychology Chapter IX Language I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Chapter IX Language I Deck (28):
0

Define language:

Language is the use of an organized means of combining words in order to communicate.

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Define psycholinguistics!

Psycholinguistics is the psychology of our language as it interacts with our minds.

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Six properties that are distinctive for language:

1. Communicative
2. Arbitrarily symbolic
3. Regularly structured
4. Structured at multiple levels
5. Generative / productive
6. Dynamic (constantly evolving)

3

Two principles underlying word meanings:

principle of
- conventionality
- contrast
(Clark, Diesendruck)

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Principle of conventionality:

Words mean what conventions make them mean.

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Principle of contrast:

Different words have different meanings.

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The main purpose of language:

Language facilitates our being able to construct a mental representation of a situation that enables us to understand and communicate aut it (Budwig 1995, Zwaan, Radvansky 1998)

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Verbal comprehension is ...

... the receptive ability to comprehend written and spoken linguistic input.

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Verbal fluency is ...

... the expressive ability to produce linguistic output.

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What is the smallest unit of speech sound?

a phone

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What is a phoneme?

A phone that can be used to distinguish one utterance in a given language from another.

12

Four similar words showing the importance of four phonemes:

sit, sat, fit, fat

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Phones that are not neccesary to distinguish words in a given language are sometimes referred to as ...

... allophones.

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What are allophones?

Sound variants of the same phoneme.

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Phonemics is ...

... the study of the particular phonemes of a language.

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Phonetics is ...

... the study of how to produce or combine speech sounds or to represent them with written symbols.

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What's on the next higher level after the phoneme?

The morpheme.

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What is a morpheme?

The smallest unit that denotes meaning within a particular language.

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Suffixes and prefixes together are ...

... affixes.

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How many morphemes does the word "recharge" consist of?

2

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Two kinds of morphemes:

1. Content morphemes
2. Function morphemes

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What do function morphemes do?

- add nuances to content morphemes
- help the content morpheme fit the grammatical context

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Examples for function morphemes:

and, the, -ed

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What is the lexicon?

The entire set of morphemes in a given language.

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Syntax refers to ...

... the way in which users of a particular language put words together to form languages.

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Two parts every sentence must have:

- noun phrase
- verb phrase

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Semantics is ...

... the study of meaning in a language.

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"Discourse" encompasses language ...

... use at the level beyond the sentence (conversations, paragraphs, stories etc.).