Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Chapter IX Language I Deck (28):
Language is the use of an organized means of combining words in order to communicate.
Psycholinguistics is the psychology of our language as it interacts with our minds.
Six properties that are distinctive for language:
2. Arbitrarily symbolic
3. Regularly structured
4. Structured at multiple levels
5. Generative / productive
6. Dynamic (constantly evolving)
Two principles underlying word meanings:
Principle of conventionality:
Words mean what conventions make them mean.
Principle of contrast:
Different words have different meanings.
The main purpose of language:
Language facilitates our being able to construct a mental representation of a situation that enables us to understand and communicate aut it (Budwig 1995, Zwaan, Radvansky 1998)
Verbal comprehension is ...
... the receptive ability to comprehend written and spoken linguistic input.
Verbal fluency is ...
... the expressive ability to produce linguistic output.
What is the smallest unit of speech sound?
What is a phoneme?
A phone that can be used to distinguish one utterance in a given language from another.
Four similar words showing the importance of four phonemes:
sit, sat, fit, fat
Phones that are not neccesary to distinguish words in a given language are sometimes referred to as ...
What are allophones?
Sound variants of the same phoneme.
Phonemics is ...
... the study of the particular phonemes of a language.
Phonetics is ...
... the study of how to produce or combine speech sounds or to represent them with written symbols.
What's on the next higher level after the phoneme?
What is a morpheme?
The smallest unit that denotes meaning within a particular language.
Suffixes and prefixes together are ...
How many morphemes does the word "recharge" consist of?
Two kinds of morphemes:
1. Content morphemes
2. Function morphemes
What do function morphemes do?
- add nuances to content morphemes
- help the content morpheme fit the grammatical context
Examples for function morphemes:
and, the, -ed
What is the lexicon?
The entire set of morphemes in a given language.
Syntax refers to ...
... the way in which users of a particular language put words together to form languages.
Two parts every sentence must have:
- noun phrase
- verb phrase
Semantics is ...
... the study of meaning in a language.