# CogPsy - Chapter XII - DecisionMaking II (513) Flashcards

1
Q

What’s a property of a categorical syllogism?

A

The premises state something about the category memberships of the term.

• All cogscis are sexy people.
• All sexy people have a lot of sex.
• All cogscis have a lot of sex.
2
Q

4 kinds of premises:

A
• universal affirmatives (All A are B)
• universal negative statements (no A is B)
• particular affirmative statements (some A are B)
• particular negative statements (some A are not B)
3
Q

Categorical syllogisms can be represented as …

A

… circle diagrams.

4
Q

A theory about how people solve categorical syllogisms is the atmosphere bias. 2 basic ideas of this theory:

A
• if there is at least one negative premise, people prefer a negative solution.
• if there is at least one particular among the premises, people will prefer a particular solution.
5
Q

What can we use to solve syllogisms?

A

mental models

6
Q

A bias in deductive reasoning:

A
• confirmation bias (2 4 6 -> we seek confirmation rather than disconfirmation)
7
Q

Errors and problems occurring in deductive reasoning:

A
• overextension errors
• foreclosure effects
• premise-phrasing effects
8
Q

We should do deductive reasoning when we are …

A

… sad, because we seem to pay more attention to details.

9
Q

Three items in categorical syllogisms:

A
• the subject (cogscis)
• the middle term (sexy people)
• predicate (having a lot of sex)
10
Q

What does “reversibility” mean with respect to premises?

A

??

11
Q

Inductive reasoning is reasoning from

A

specific facts to conclusions that may explein the facts. (2 4 6 -> we’ve got facts, but what’s the rule?)

12
Q

Problems in causal inferences:

A
• correlation is not causation
• illusory correlations lead us to confirmation bias (self-fulfilling prophecies)
• discounting error (I found 1 cause and stop searching for another)
13
Q

How do people draw inferences?

A

Using both bottom-up and top-down strategies.

14
Q

Analogies only go so far.

A

DOUGH

15
Q

The dual-process theory of reasoning includes:

A
• an associative system

- a rule-based system

16
Q

Examples of associative reasoning as part of the dual-process theory:

A
• representative heuristic
• belief-bias effect
• false-consensus effect
17
Q

The rule-based system of the dual-process theory requires …

A

… more deliberate, painstaking procedures.

18
Q

Connectionist model of dual-system deductive reasoning:

A
• associations in the network
• rules in a system of production rules
(ACT?)
19
Q

Reasoning and brain:

A
• Basal Ganglia (also working memory DUGH)

- frontal lobe more active in reasoning than in memory activity.