Flashcards in CogPsy - Chapter VII - Landscape of Memory I Deck (22):
2 kinds of knowledge structures:
What is a symbolic representation?
relationship btw. representation and the to-be-represented is arbitrary (e.g. cat and an actual cat)
... is the mental representation of things that are not currently seen or sensed by the sense organs.
According to "dual-code theory" we use ...
... both pictorial and verbal codes for representing information.
Analog codes ...
... resemble the objects they represent.
we do not store mental representations in the form of images or mere words. They more closly resemble the abstract form of a proposition.
An example for a proposition:
[eat]([Thomas], [ice cream])
What can be expressed in form of a proposition:
- spatial position
- category membership
What can be used to show that mental images are not truly analogous to perceptions of physical objects?
ambiguous figures (Chambers & Reisberg)
Semantic labels ...
... clearly influence mental images.
Critiques showed that part.s could reinterpret ambiguous figures, with the help of 1 of 4 hints:
- implicit reference-frame hint
- explicit reference-frame hint
- attentional hint
- construals from "good" parts
According to the functional-equivalence hypothesis, although ...
... visual imagery is not identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent.
5 general principles of visual imagery by Finke, give 2 examples:
- our mental movements across images correspond to those of physical percepts.
- Mental images can be used to generate info that was not explicitly stored during encoding.
What can be used to provide evidence for the functional-equivalence hypothesis?
- mental rotation and response times
- image scaling
- image scanning
Corresponding to spatial neglect there also is ...
... representational neglect.
Some suggest that representations may take any of the following forms:
propositions, images or mental models.
Mental models are structures ...
... that individuals construct to understand and explain tehir experiences.
Two kind of images:
Cognitive maps are ...
... internal representations of our physical environment.
3 types of knowledge used when forming mental maps:
- landmark knowledge (imaginal and propositional representations)
- route-road knowledge (procedural and declarative knowledge)
- survey knowledge (imaginal and propositional)
The 3 types of knowledge used in forming mental maps suggest that people ...
... use both: analogical and propositional code e.g. for images of maps.