CogPsy - Chapter VII - Landscape of Memory I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CogPsy - Chapter VII - Landscape of Memory I Deck (22):
1

2 kinds of knowledge structures:

declarative knowledge
procedural knowledge

2

What is a symbolic representation?

relationship btw. representation and the to-be-represented is arbitrary (e.g. cat and an actual cat)

3

Imagery ...

... is the mental representation of things that are not currently seen or sensed by the sense organs.

4

According to "dual-code theory" we use ...

... both pictorial and verbal codes for representing information.

5

Analog codes ...

... resemble the objects they represent.

6

Propositional theory:

we do not store mental representations in the form of images or mere words. They more closly resemble the abstract form of a proposition.

7

An example for a proposition:

[eat]([Thomas], [ice cream])

8

What can be expressed in form of a proposition:

- actions
- attributes
- spatial position
- category membership

9

What can be used to show that mental images are not truly analogous to perceptions of physical objects?

ambiguous figures (Chambers & Reisberg)

10

Semantic labels ...

... clearly influence mental images.

11

Critiques showed that part.s could reinterpret ambiguous figures, with the help of 1 of 4 hints:

- implicit reference-frame hint
- explicit reference-frame hint
- attentional hint
- construals from "good" parts

12

According to the functional-equivalence hypothesis, although ...

... visual imagery is not identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent.

13

5 general principles of visual imagery by Finke, give 2 examples:

- our mental movements across images correspond to those of physical percepts.
- Mental images can be used to generate info that was not explicitly stored during encoding.

14

What can be used to provide evidence for the functional-equivalence hypothesis?

- mental rotation and response times
- image scaling
- image scanning

15

Corresponding to spatial neglect there also is ...

... representational neglect.

16

Some suggest that representations may take any of the following forms:

propositions, images or mental models.

17

Mental models are structures ...

... that individuals construct to understand and explain tehir experiences.

18

Two kind of images:

- visual
- spatial

19

Cognitive maps are ...

... internal representations of our physical environment.

20

3 types of knowledge used when forming mental maps:

- landmark knowledge (imaginal and propositional representations)
- route-road knowledge (procedural and declarative knowledge)
- survey knowledge (imaginal and propositional)

21

The 3 types of knowledge used in forming mental maps suggest that people ...

... use both: analogical and propositional code e.g. for images of maps.

22

Heuristics and biases when creating mental maps (many found by

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