Confounding and extraneous variables Flashcards Preview

Psychology A2 Research Methods > Confounding and extraneous variables > Flashcards

Flashcards in Confounding and extraneous variables Deck (10):

What are nuisance variables

Another word for confounding and extraneous variables because they confuse everything


What is the difference between an extraneous and a confounding variable?

Extraneous is the general term and confounding variables are specific type of extraneous variables


Can you remember the account of clever Hans and Arabian stallion? He showed an astonishing ability to perform arithmetic calculations. Someone would perform a simple arithmetic question and would start counting allowed when they reach the answer to the question the horse would start stamping its hoofs.

What does this show?

The horse was actually responding to cues so fulfilling expectations is the outcome of demand characteristics


What are situational variables

Features a research situation that may influence the participants behaviour and therefore act as Evs


What are participant variables?

Any participant variable might act as an EV such as Age intelligence motivation experience gender


In which study design is participant variables more controlled

In a repeated measures design


What are participant effects

Participant effects might occur because participants actively seek cues about how to behave


What are investigator effects

The cues that encourage certain behaviours in the participant


What sort of question may lead a participant to give the answer the investigator wants

A leading question


Rosenthal found that male investigators behaved differently when their participants were female. What were the differences?

The males were more pleasant friendly honest encouraging and relaxed!