Nonexperimental methods and science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nonexperimental methods and science Deck (23):
1

What are other methods to conduct scientific research apart from conducting experiments

A self-report method which includes questionnaires and interviews, observation that is systematic.

2

What are the key principles of science?

Science is 1. empirical, 2.objective, 3.controlled, 4.research can be replicated, 5.involves a theory or explanation being constructed (EOCRT) (CROTE)

3

What is a paradigm shift?

Thomas Kuhn proposed that scientific knowledge about the world develops through revolutions he suggested that scientific disciplines produce paradigms and over time the paradigms become challenged more and more until there is suddenly a paradigm shift

4

What is a classic example of a paradigms shift involving our understanding of the universe

The astronomer Copernicus in the 18th-century challenge the belief held for almost 2000 years that the Earth was the centre of the universe

5

What is empirical data?

Empirical data are facts

6

? How is empirical data collected

Through direct observation or experiment rather than by reasoned arguments or beliefs

7

Why is empirical data useful?

People can make claims about the truth of a theory or the benefits of the treatment that the only way we know such things true if empirical evidence

8

Why must science and empirical data be objective?

Systematic collection of measurable data and not affected by the Expectations of the researcher is the only way of being sure that the data is valid

9

Why is control necessary in an experiment?

Lack of control makes it difficult to interpret the results of the study because extraneous variables mean we cannot be certain that X caused y

10

What is science?

Science is essentially a systematic approach to creating knowledge

11

Why should science be systematic?

This means we can rely on it in order to predict and control the world

12

What is the method used to gain scientific knowledge

The scientific method

13

When is an experiment not an experiment?

When somebody is referring to an investigation that does not involve both independent and dependent variables

14

The scientific method can be inductive - what is the inductive process?

Induction is a bottom-up process starting from the particular and ending with the general theory

15

The scientific method can be deductive – what is the deductive process

Deduction is a top-down process starting from the general theory and generating particular hypotheses that can be tested

16

What is common to both inductive and deductive processes?

In both cases the process involves repeating the processes over and over again to refine knowledge

17

What are the key steps of an inductive study (there are five steps)

1 observations
2 testable hypothesis
3. conduct a study to test the hypothesis
4. draw conclusions
5. proposed theory

18

What are the key steps of a deductive study

1 observations
2. propose theory
3 testable hypothesis
4. conduct a study to test the hypothesis
5. draw conclusions

19

During which step of an inductive study of the conclusions refined?

At the draw conclusions step

20

During which stepfather a deductive study are the conclusions refined?

Whilst conducting a study to test the hypothesis

21

Why is it important for scientific research to be replicated

Repeating a study is the most important way to demonstrate the validity of any observation or experiment and to affirm the truth of the original results

22

Why do scientists standardise their methods carefully?

Though the same procedures can be followed in the future and replicated

23

What is the forer effect?

Bertram fora in 1949 active students to fill in a personality questionnaire. They all said the evaluation that was fed back to them was extremely accurate. He then revealed that he had in fact given them all the same analysis from an astrology column