Flashcards in Descriptive statistics – tables and graphs Deck (19):
What is raw data?
The data that are first produced a study and is unprocessed
What is the last thing you would usually do with raw data?
An organised table
What is a frequency table?
Where a researcher records raw data by counting the frequency of different items
When is a frequency table unsuitable
When the data from many items are repeated
What are the different types of graphs
Bar charts, histograms, line graphs, pie charts, scatter grams
What is a bar chart
A chart that represents the frequency of categories
In a bar chart the categories are usually place on which axis?
In a bar chart that the frequency is usually placed on which axis?
What is a histogram?
Bars are proportional to the frequency represented so the vertical axis starts at zero and there are no spaces between the bars
What is a line graph?
This has continuous data on the X axis and each.shows the middle top of where the bar would be. Each dot is connected by a line
What is a pie chart
They are used to represent frequency data or can be used to represent any proportion. Each slice of the pie represents the proportion or fraction of the total.
How is the size of each slice calculated in a pie chart?
By working out the proportion out of 360 (since there are 360° in a circle)
What is a scatter gram?
A kind of graph used when doing a correlational analysis
What Does the term data distribution mean?
when studying large datasets we can see an overall pattern of the data called a distribution
What is the curve 0f a normal distribution
The normal distribution is a classic bell-shaped curve
What are the three defining features of a normal distribution
The mean and median and mode are all in the exact midpoint,
the distribution is symmetrical around this midpoint and
the dispersion of scores or measurements either side of the midpoint is consistent and can be expressed in standard deviations
What is a skewed distribution?
When population scores are not distributed equally around the mean
What is a positive skewed distribution
Most of the scores in a frequency distribution are bunched to the left with a tail to the right