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Flashcards in Connective Tissue Review Deck (31)
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1

What type of connective tissue are tendons?

Dense regular connective tissue

2

What is tendonitis?

Where small tears occur in a tendon leading to localised inflammation

3

What are the common causes of tendonitis?

Overuse, collagen disorders and renal dialysis

4

What are some of the common sites for tendonitis?

Achilles tendon, lateral epicondyle and supraspinatus

5

How may calcification occur as a result of tendonitis?

Partial tears may heal by forming calcified regions which makes the tendon brittle and it may rupture

6

What is the treatment for tendonitis?

RICE, stretching, surgery and pain relief

7

Outline extrinsic and intrinsic tendon healing

Extrinsic - peripheral fibroblasts aid in healing
Intrinsic - fibroblasts from the tendon itself aid in healing

8

In which tendons does intrinsic tendon healing occur?

Those surrounded by a synovial/tendon sheath e.g. hand flexors

9

Why may tendon sheaths be affected by rheumatoid arthritis?

As the tendon sheaths have synovial membrane, they can be affected by rheumatoid arthritis

10

What is the difference between tendonitis and tenosynovitis?

In tenosynovitis there is also inflammation of the tendon sheath lining

11

What is De Quervain's tenosynovitis?

There is fibrosis and narrowing of the tendon sheath due to rubbing of the sheath over the radial styloid process

12

What is trigger finger?

Where there is enlargement of a tendon within the sheath

13

How do you treat De Quervain's tenosynovitis?

Shaving the radial styloid process

14

How do you treat trigger finger?

Cut the annular ligament in the affected finger

15

What is an enthesis?

Where a tendon/ligament/joint capsule attached to bone

16

What are the two types of enthesis?

Fibrous and fibrocartilaginous

17

Describe fibrous entheses

The ligament/tendon joins directly to bone via collagen fibres known as Sharpey's fibre penetrating the periosteum of the bone

18

Describe fibrocartilaginous entheses

The tendon/ligament transitions through fibrocartilage regions before reaching the bone, causing the collagen fibres to become more disorganised and mineral content to increase before it reaches the bone

19

What are Sharpey's fibres?

The collagen fibres from a tendon/ligament/joint capsule that directly insert into the periosteum of the bone to connect the two structures

20

What is the advantage of fibrocartilaginous entheses over fibrous entheses?

The gradual change to mineralised content helps to stiffen the ligament and dissipate stress concentration to be more mechanically resistant

21

What is enthesitis?

Inflammation of the enthesis at any point of attachment inserting into the bone

22

What is the difference between enthesophytes and osteophytes?

Enthesophytes originate from the insertion of joint capsule/ligament or tendon and don’t involve the articular border to the joint, whereas osteophytes originate from the border of the articular cartilage

23

What is ankylosing spondylitis?

A form of enthesitis of the intervertebral disc and anterior longitudinal ligament

24

What may cause enthesitis?

Recurrent stress, autoimmune disease, HLA B27

25

Which HLA molecule is related to enthesitis?

HLA B27

26

How may enthesitis be treated?

RICE, NSAIDs, anti-inflammatory drugs and hyperosmolar dextose

27

Why may hyperosmolar dextrose be used to treat enthesitis?

Injection of this irritant can cause proliferation of the intrinsic fibroblasts to repair the damage

28

What is systemic lupus erythematosus?

Where the boy makes a wide range of antibodies against self-antigens which cause damage to blood vessels and connective tissue

29

Who is typically affected by systemic lupus erythematosus?

Females, more likely to be black people and those 15-40

30

What are the signs/symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus?

Fever, weight changes, butterfly fascial rash and photosensitivity