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Flashcards in Degenerative versus Inflammatory Joint Conditions Deck (18)
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1

What is the most common form of arthritis?

Osteoarthritis

2

What percentage of the population suffer from rheumatoid arthritis?

1%

3

Compare the disease onset of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis

OA = slow, over years
RA = relatively rapid (weeks to months)

4

Compare the joint symptoms of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis

OA = joints ache and tender
RA = joints are painful, swollen and stiff

5

Which joints are often affected by rheumatoid arthritis?

Small and large joints on both sides of the body; hands, wrists or elbows, balls of the feet etc.

6

Which joints are often affected by osteoarthritis?

Often unilateral and are in the DIPs, PIPs, thumbs or large weight-bearing joints such as hips, knees and spine

7

Compare the duration of morning stiffness between rheumatoid and osteoarthritis

OA = lasts less than an hour (returns at the end of the day or after physical activity)
RA = lasts longer than an hour

8

In which ethnicities is osteoarthritis of the hip uncommon?

Africans and asians

9

In which ethnicities is polyarticular osteoarthritis uncommon?

Africans and Malaysians

10

What predisposes individuals to develop premature polyarticular osteoarthritis?

Inherited type II collagen defects

11

What are the four signs of osteoarthritis on x-ray?

> Joint space narrowing (cartilage loss)
> Osteophytes
> Subchondral sclerosis (white line by exposed bone)
> Trabeculae fractures/subchondral cysts

12

Name two types of osteoarthritis.

Nodal generalised OA and erosive OA

13

What is nodal generalised osteoarthritis?

Affects small joints of the hands primarily (Herberden’s/Bouchard’s nodes) and disease often starts around the time of menopause BUT HRT doesn’t help symptoms or progression

14

What is erosive osteoarthritis?

An inflammatory form of OA that often affects the DIPs, characterised by erosions of cartilage in the hands and is often present in middle-aged/post-menopausal women and is often confused with rheumatoid arthritis

15

How do you diagnose rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid factor (IgM antibody to the Fc portion of IgG)

16

What is rheumatoid factor?

It's a IgM antibody to the Fc portion of IgG antibodies. It is found in 60-80% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

17

What two antibodies can be tested for to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies

18

Why may rheumatoid arthritis lead to anaemia of chronic disease?

As the activation of monocytes and T-cells due to inflammation causes:
> Inhibition of EPO release
> Inhibits erythroid proliferation in red bone marrow
> Increases hepatic synthesis of hepicidin which prevents iron release --> fewer red blood cells produced
> Augments haemophagocytosis (also prevents iron release)