Flashcards in Revision of the Upper Limb Anatomy Deck (41)
What are the three bones of the shoulder?
Scapula, clavicle and humerus
What are the three joints of the shoulder?
Sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular and glenohumeral
What is the blood supply to the upper arm?
Subclavian artery becomes the axillary as it passes by the armpit, and then the brachial after the inferior border of teres major.
What are the nerve roots of the brachial plexus?
What are the 5 terminal nerves of the brachial plexus?
Musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median and ulnar
What are the three nerves of the anterior cord of the brachial plexus?
Musculocutaneous, median and ulnar
What are the two nerves of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?
Axillary and radial
What nerve is likely to be damaged if there is an anterior dislocation of the shoulder?
Axillary nerve as it runs underneath the glenohumeral joint
If there is axillary nerve damage what are the clinical findings?
Weakness in abduction of the arm due to deltoid paralysis and loss of sensation over the regimental badge
Where does lymph from the upper limb mainly drain?
Into humeral and central nodes
Where does the lymph from the lateral breast drain?
Where does the lymph from the medial breast drain?
Into parasternal nodes
What is meant by scapula-humeral rhythm?
The scapula and humerus move in a 1:2 ratio. When the arm is abducted 180 degrees, 60 degrees is done by rotation of the scapula whilst 120 is done by rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint
What is the function of serratus anterior?
To keep the scapula onto the ribcage
What is the nerve supply to serratus anterior?
Long thoracic nerve
What happens if there is damage to the long thoracic nerve?
Winging of the scapula due to lack of innervation to serratus anterior muscle which usually keeps scapula to ribcage
What causes winging of the scapula?
Long thoracic nerve injury (dysfunction of serratus anterior)
What nerve may be injured in breast cancer surgery (axillary node clearance)?
Thoracodorsal nerve (to latissimus dorsi) OR long thoracic nerve (serratus anterior)
What is the nerve supply to latissimus dorsi?
How may the spinal accessory nerve become damaged?
Tumour around the jugular foramen
What are the signs of damage to the spinal accessory nerve?
Weak shoulder abduction, atrophy of trapezius and shoulder falls
What are the joints at the elbow?
Humeroulnar, humeroradial and proximal radioulnar joints
What structures run in the spiral groove of the posterior compartment of the upper arm?
Radial nerve and deep artery of the arm
What structures run in the anterior compartment of the upper arm?
Median and musculocutaneous nerves with the brachial artery
What nerve is at risk of injury in a mid-shaft humeral fracture?
Radial nerve --> wrist drop
What nerve is at risk of injury in a supracondylar fracture just above the elbow?
Median nerve --> hand of benediction
What nerve is at risk of injury in a medial epicondyle fracture?
Ulnar nerve --> ulnar claw
Which is the stabilising bone of the forearm?
Ulna is most stabilising as the ulna claws over the bone
What is the function of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm?
Flexors and pronators