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Flashcards in Pain and Analgesia Deck (17)
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1

What processes occur when there is tissue injury?

Release of inflammatory mediators (K+, H+, bradykinin, histamine, nitric oxide and serotonin and prostaglandins), activation of peripheral nociception too

2

What are some of the physiological processes present in neuropathic pain?

Altered ion channel expression --> hyper excited neurones --> excessive release of neurotransmitters with ectopic/spontaneous discharge

3

Name two excitatory neurone receptors?

glutamate and NMDA receptors

4

Name three inhibitory neuronal pathways

GABA, opioid and monoaminergic

5

When is pain defined as chronic?

If it lasts longer than 6 months

6

Name three weak opiods

Codeine, dihydrocodeine and tramadol

7

Name 4 strong opioids

Morphine, hydromorphone, fenatyl and methadone

8

What is the mechanism of action of diclofenac?

NSAID, inhibits COX-1/2 to prevent PG synthesis

9

What are the potential side effects of diclofenac?

May have side-effects on the kidneys, GI tract, platelets and bleeding

10

What is the mechanism of action of tramadol?

Weak opiod which acts to modulate monoaminergic pathways

11

What are the potential side effects of tramadol?

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness and sweating

12

What is the principle of action behind the use of opioids?

These drugs mimic analgesic peptides normally found in the body such as endorphins, dynorphins and enkaphalins

13

What are the three opioid receptor types?

u, k and delta

14

Where are opioid receptors found?

CNS and in the gut

15

Why may naloxone be used alongside opioids?

To prevent opioid-induced constipation as it has a greater affinity for opioid receptors in the gut

16

Outline the mechanism of action of morphine

Acts on u opioid receptors

17

What are the potential side effects of morphine?

Constipation, nausea and drowsiness