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Flashcards in Paediatric Orthopaedics Deck (39)
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What is 'flat foot'?

When the arch of the foot doesn't fully develop, and this may appear as weak ankles which turn inwards


What is the treatment for 'flat foot'?

Orthotics to aid the arch with stretching or surgery


What are the potential causes of flat feet?

Muscle imbalances or issues with the tarsal bones


What may persistent toe walking in older children indicate?

Cerebral palsy, DMD or nervous system disorders


How may toe walking be corrected?

A cast for the foot and ankle or stretching of the calf muscles


What is club foot?

Where the foot looks like a foot; also known as talipes equinovarus which means there is a fixed varus and equinus deformity and calf underdevelopment


What is the epidemiology of club foot?

1 in 1,000 children have it and it's more common in boys


What are the risk factors for developing club foot?

Breech presentation, connective tissue disorders, too little amniotic fluid, Edwards Syndrom


How is club foot treated?

Ponseti method - manipulative technique to correct the foot using braces and stretching


What is the Ponseti method?

Method of manipulative treatment for club foot


What is Edward's syndrome?

Trisomy 18


What is hip dysplasia?

When the hip joint is mal-aligned


How common is congenital hip dysplasia?

1.5 in 1,000 children


What are the risk factors for congenital hip dysplasia

Breech delivery and family history of club foot or scoliosis, and is commoner in females


How may congenital hip dysplasia present in infants?

Tends to be double creases when the leg is turned outwards, with asymmetric gluteal folds (double crease on affected side)


Why is the use of x-ray limited in the diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia in infants?

As the femoral head doesn't ossify until 4-6 months and therefore won't be visible on x-ray


How may an ultrasound be used to diagnose congenital hip dysplasia?

The femoral head will move back on the gluteal muscles, causing the fibres to look more vertical


How is 'Barlows test' used to diagnose congenital hip dysplasia?

Knees are brought together and pushed on slightly whilst the infant is lying down. If the hip can be dislocated like this, this is a positive test


How is 'Ortolani test' used to diagnose congenital hip dysplasia?

This usually follows on from Barlows test, and involves abducting the hip to see whether the hip will pop back in, to confirm the diagnosis


How is 'Galeazzi test' used to diagnose congenital hip dysplasia?

Flex the hip and knee and see if there is a leg length discrepancy in the height of the knee, affected side will be shorter


How is congenital hip dysplasia treated?

Under 6 months = Pavlik harness to keep the femoral head in the true acetabulum
Over 6 months or doesn't work = closed reduction with hip spikes or open reduction

Often resolves spontaneously though, however.


What is Perthes' disease?

Self-limiting avascular necrosis of the femoral head often due to loss of the acetabular branch of the obturator artery which supplies the femoral head


Is Perthes' disease usually unilateral or bilateral?



What are the four stages of Perthes' disease?

Necrosis, fragmentation, reossification and remodelling


Describe the necrosis stage of Perthes' disease

A portion of the femoral head dies and the shape of the femoral head changes, causing pain, stiffness and inflammation and this takes up to one year


Describe the fragmentation stage of Perthes' disease

The dead cells from the necrosis of the femoral head are then absorbed and replaced by new bone, and as the new bone forms it produces varying femoral head shapes, this takes 1-3 years to take place


Describe the reossification stage of Perthes' disease

The femoral head continues to growth with new bone cells, taking 1-3 years


Describe the remodelling stage of Perthes' disease

New bone cells are gradually replaced by normal bone cells and remodelling continues, and this can take 1-3 years or more


What is slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE)?

Where the epiphysis (growth plate) of the femur stays in place, but the femoral neck and shaft displace


Which side is more likely to be affected by SUFE?

Left hip