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What factors may lead to the loss of muscle mass in sarcopenia?

Low sex hormones, low IGF-1 , decrease in physical activity, OA and neuronal degeneration


What is camptocormia?

an abnormal, severe and involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine, which becomes manifest during standing and walking and subsides in the recumbent (lying) position


How may sarcopenia be prevented?

Exercise, vitamin D depletion (supplements) and HRT


What is osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a disease of synovial joints which is characterised by focal cartilage loss and an accompanying reparative bone response.


How may you diagnose/observe osteoarthritis on a plain radiograph?

Cartilage loss (joint space narrowing) and bone response (presence of osteophytes and sclerosis)


What is pseudogout?

Crystal-associated osteoarthritis (psuedogout) is a calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) disease (an apatite-associated destructive arthritis)


What are Heberden's nodes?

Increased width of the bone in the DISTAL interphalangeal joint, seen in osteoarthritis


What are Bouchard's nodes?

Increased width of the bone in the PROXIMAL interphalangeal joint, seen in osteoarthritis


What is spondylosis?

Spondylosis is a degenerative condition of the discal articulation of the spine


How is osteoporosis classified?

Primary (type 1 = post-menopausal, type 2 = senile, <70 years of age)

Secondary - due to thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's, malignancy etc.

Idiopathic (under age 50)


Define osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.