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Flashcards in Development of the Reproductive System Deck (84):
1

urinary and genital systems both develop from a common mesodermal ridge called _____

intermediate mesoderm

2

intermediate mesoderm bulges into the intraembryonic coelmic cavity to create the _____

urogenital ridge

3

the urogenital ridge differentiates into ____ and _____

-nephrogenic cord/ridge
-genital ridge

4

primordial germ cells originate from the ____ of the ____

endoderm; yolk sac

5

PGCs migrate along the ____ to invade the ____ around week 6

dorsal mesentery; genital ridges

6

in the genital ridge, epithelium proliferates and epithelial cells penetrate underlying mesenchyme to form _____ (at this point it is impossible to differentiate between male and female- indifferent gonads)

primitive sex cords

7

during the indifferent gonad phase, both males and females have two ductal systems:

-mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts
-Paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts

8

paramesonephric ducts initially run ____ to mesonephric ducts; will cross ventrally and run ____ (in females)

laterally; caudomedially

9

cascade caused in males by 44+XY (Y influence)

indifferent gonad --> testis -->medually cords develop, no cortical cords, thick tunica albuginea

10

what happens in females because of 44 + XX (absence of Y)

indifferent gonad --> ovary --> medullary cords degenerate, cortical cords develop, no tunica albuginea

11

the Y chromosome contains the ____ gene which stands for _____

SRY; "sex determining region of the Y chromosome"

12

the SRY gene codes for ____, which stands for ____ and will lead to the development of the ____

TDF; testes determining factor; testes

13

the gonads will arise from ____ within the ____ of the embryo

intermediate mesoderm; genital ridges

14

the genital ducts will arise from paired _____ ducts

mesonephric

15

under influence of TDF, primitive sex cords continue to proliferate and penetrate into the ____, which is the central portion of the ____ (i.e. the developing testes)

medulla; genital ridge

16

the proliferation of the primitive sex cords forms the ___ or ____

testis cords or medually cords

17

towards the ____ (or lateral portion to the medulla), the testis cords break up and give rise to the tubules of the _____

hilum; rete testis

18

fibrous connective tissue that separates the testis cords from surface epithelium

tunica albuginea

19

the testis cords are composed of ____ and ____

primitive germ cells; sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells)

20

the sustentacular cells or Sertoli cells are derived from _____, secrete ____, and support _____

surface epithelium; AMH (also called MIS); spermiogenesis

21

the cell population within the empty space found between the testis cords is made up of ____ or _____

interstitial cells; Leydig cells

22

interstitial/Leydig cells are derived from _____ and secrete _____

mesenchyme of the genital ridge; testosterone

23

Around month 4, testis cords become _____ shaped

horseshoe

24

AMH stands for ____ and MIS stands for _____; both substances influence the degeneration/regression of the paramesonephric ducts (also called Mullerian ducts)

anti-Mullerian hormone; Mullerian-inhibiting substance

25

at approximately the 8th week of development, testosterone is secreted by the Leydig cells, which induces masculine differentiation of ____ and _____

mesonephric ducts; external genitalia

26

the testis cords remain solid until puberty, at which they develop a ____ and are called the _____

lumen; seminiferous tubules

27

the seminiferous tubules then join with the ____, which will enter the _____

rete testis tubules (or cords); ductuli efferentes (efferent ductules)

28

the ductuli efferentes (efferent ductules) link the ____ and _____

rete testis; mesonephric duct

29

the mesonephric duct will become the _____

ductus deferens (vas deferens)

30

the genital ducts in males are stimulated to develop by ____ and are derived from the _____

testosterone; mesonephric kidney system

31

mesonephric ducts open into _____ on either side of the ____

urogenital sinus; sinus tubercle

32

genital ducts in males

efferent ductules lead to (1) epididymis --> (2) ductus deferens --> (3) seminal vesicle --> (4) ejaculatory duct

33

under the control of AMH, the _____ degenerates, except for a small portion of the cranial end called the _____

paramesonephric duct; appendix testis

34

the _____ or ____ is an outpocketing of the urethra

utriculus prostaticus ; prostatic utricle

35

the testes develop ____ in the abdominal region and must pass through the abdominal wall to the reach the ____; passage occurs through the _____

retroperitoneally; scrotum; inguinal canal

36

the _____ extends from the caudal pole of the testis, anchors it to the scrotum and guides its descent

gubernaculum

37

descent occurs primarily due to the growth of the cranial end of the ____away from the future ____ region; this descent through the inguinal canals is controlled by ____

abdomen; pelvic; testosterone

38

passage through the inguinal canals may also be aided by increase in _____ resulting from growth of _____

intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal viscera

39

during descent of the testes, the _____ of the abdominal cavity forms evagination on each side of the midline into the ____ abdominal wall; this is the ____, which follows the path of the gubernaculum into the scrotal swellings

peritoneam; ventral; vaginal process or processus vaginalis

40

as testes descend through the inguinal ring, they get covered by:

-processus vaginalis: visceral layer of tunica vaginalis & parietal layer of tunica vaginalis
-Transversalis fascia: internal spermatic fascia
-internal abdominal oblique muscle: cremasteric fascia and muscle
-external abdominal oblique muscle: external spermatic fascia

41

_____ does not contribute a layer to the testes

transversus abdominis m.

42

because females have no Y chromosome, they have no ___ or ____

SRY; TDF

43

_____ dissociate into clusters which occupy the ____ part of the ovary

primitive sex cords; medullary

44

surface epithelium continues to proliferate which gives rise to the ____ in females

cortical cords

45

cortical cords split into isolated cell clusters; cells in clusters continue to proliferate & surround ____ with _____

oogonium; follicular cells

46

oogonia (or primary oocyte) + follicular cells = _____

primordial follicle

47

in females, with the presence of estrogen and the absence of testosterone and AMH:

-mesonephric ducts regress
-paramesonephric ducts develop into main genital ducts

48

in females, paramesonephric ducts at first run ____ to mesonephric duct, then cross ____; at midline, they will meet with the paramesonephric duct on the opposite side

lateral; ventrally

49

the caudal tip of combined paramesonephric ducts projects into the ____ at the ____

posterior urogenital sinus; sinus tubercle

50

ovaries will descend, and paramesonephric ducts simultaneously form:

-uterine tube
-uterine canal
-corpus uteri
-cervix
-upper portion of vagina

51

when the caudal tip of the paramesonephric duct hits the urogenital sinus, two _____ proliferate and form solid _____

sinovaginal bulbs; vaginal plate

52

wing like expansions of the vagina around the end of the uterus

vaginal fornices

53

____ continues to grow cranially, increasing distance between uterus and urogenital sinus

vaginal plate

54

the vagina has dual origin; upper portion from ____ and lower portion derived from _____

uterine canal; urogenital sinus

55

the ____, which is a plate of ____ cells, separates the vagina from the urogenital sinus

hymen; endoderm

56

as the ovaries descend, fused folds of peritoneum coming from lateral walls create the ____

broad ligament

57

cranial genital ligament forms the _____

suspensory ligament

58

caudal genital ligament forms the _____ and _____

round ligament of the ovary; round ligament of the uterus

59

in females, during the 3rd week, ____ from the primitive streak migrates around the cloacal membrane to form ____

mesenchyme; cloacal folds

60

the cloacal folds fuse cranial to the cloacal membrane and create the _____

genital tubercle

61

caudal cloacal folds form the ____ and ____ folds

urethral; anal

62

genital swellings become visible and will become the ___ in males and the ____ in females

scrotal swellings; labia majora

63

in males, external genitalia characterized by rapid elongation of ____, now called the ____

genital tubercle; phallus

64

the phallus pulls ____ forward to form the lateral walls of the _____

urethral folds; urethral groove

65

epithelial lining of the urethral groove; originates from _____

urethral plate; endoderm

66

external genitalia in males influenced by _____

androgens

67

at the end of the 3rd month, two urethral folds close over the urethral plate, forming the ____, which does not extend to the tip of the ____

penile urethra; phallus

68

the distal end of the phallus is formed during the 4th month, when _____ cells penetrate inward to form short _____

ectodermal; epithelial cord

69

later, the cord will obtain a lumen and will be called the _____

external urethral meatus

70

the penile urethra has both ____ and ____ origination

endoderm; ectoderm

71

scrotal swellings arise in ____ region and move ____

inguinal; caudally

72

scrotal swelling makes up half of the scrotum, the two are separated by the ____ (line of fusion of scrotal swellings)

scrotal septum

73

in the female, the genital tubercle elongates slightly to form the ____

clitoris

74

the urethral folds do not fuse and develop into the _____

labia minora

75

genital swellings enlarge and form the _____

labia majora

76

urogenital groove is open and forms the ____

vestibule

77

external genitalia in females influenced by ____

estrogens

78

pituitary gland develops from two sources:

1. ectodermal outpocketing of stomodeum (developing moouth), which is Rathke's pouch
2. downward extension of the diencephalon, called the infundibulum (nervous tissue)

79

Rathke's pouch grows ____ towards the infundibulum and will lose its connection with the ____ (ends up in area of sphenoid bone)

dorsally; oral cavity

80

cells in anterior wall of Rathke's pouch form _____ or anterior lobe

adenohypophysis

81

an extension of the adenohypophysis, the _____, grows along infundibulum and surrounds it

pars tuberalis

82

the posterior wall of Rathke's pouch forms _____, or the posterior lobe

pars intermedia

83

infundibulum gives rise to the ____ and the ____

stalk; pars nervosa

84

the pituitary gland is the connection between the ____ and ____ systems

nervous; endocrine