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Flashcards in Intro to Histo Deck (106):
1

two divisions of anatomy

macroscopic or gross anatomy; microscopic anatomy

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___, ____, and ____ make up microscopic anatomy

cytology, histology, and organology

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____ always reflects ____ or ____ always reflects _____

function; structure; physiology; anatomy

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4 types of tissues

epithelial tissue (epithelium), muscle tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue

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the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals

histology

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levels of structural organization

chemical level (atoms, molecules, organelles); cellular level; tissue level; organ level; organ system level; organismal level

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3 major techniques in histology

light microscopy, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy

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Specimens examined via transillumination (i.e., passing light through the specimen to facilitate observation)

light microscopy

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electron microscopy provides ____ and ____

greater resolution; higher magnification

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2 types of electron microscopy

transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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uses a beam of electrons that passes through the specimen

transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

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beam of electrons scans the surface of the specimen

scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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molecular and atomic resolution; DNA can be looked at with this mechanism; atom passes over surface and is deflected; does not require specimen to be in a vacuum

atomic force microscopy

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Defined as how far two objects must be separated from one another so that they can be distinguished as two distinct objects

resolving power or resolution

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resolution is dependent on:

1. optical system
2. wavelength of light source
3. specimen thickness
4. quality of fixation
5. staining intensity

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steps necessary for light microscopy

1. acquisition of cells or tissues
2. fixation
3. processing
4. embedding
5. sectioning
6. staining

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procession involves ____, ____ and _____

dehydration, clearing, and infiltration

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dehydration uses a ____ series of alcohol

graded

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clearing uses a ____ substance

miscible

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infiltration uses a _____

liquid embedding medium

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problems with the typical histological technique used to prepare tissues to be observed with a light microscopic examination (i.e. with paraffin):

1. time
2. solvent dissolves lipids
3. shrinkage of tissues

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to combat time issue, ____ is used

cryostat

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to combat solvent issue ____ is used in which first fixation is done with ____ and a second fixation is done with _____

double fixation; glutaraldehyde; osmium tetroxide

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to combat shrinkage issue, embedding in ____ is used

resin

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carry a net negative charge; bind with cationic cell/tissue components (i.e. those that carry a net positive charge)

acidic dyes

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examples of acidic dyes

eosin, orange G, and acid fuchsin

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acidic dyes stain ____ (or ____) tissues, those tissues with a high affinity for acid dyes; these tissues exhibit acidophilia)

acidophilic; eosinophilic

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things that acidic dyes stain

mitochondria, secretory granules, collagen fibers (as well as other extracellular fibers), general cytoplasm, basement membrane

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staining with acidic dyes is less _____; more substances within cells and the extracellular matrix exhibit ____ than _____

specific; acidophilia; basophilia

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basic dyes carry a net ____ charge and bind with ____ cell/tissue components

positive; anionic (those that carry a net negative charge)

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examples of basic dyes

toluidine blue, alcian, and methylene blue; hematoxylin, although not a basic dye, acts like one

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basic dyes stain ____ tissue, i.e. those with a high affinity for basic dyes

basophilic (tissues exhibit basophilia)

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basic dyes bind to :

-negative phosphate group on DNA and RNA (cell nucleus, nucleoli, RNA-rich portions of the cytoplasm); the carboxyl groups of proteins; sulfate groups of cartilage cartilage matrix (GAGs)

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stains basophilic tissue, has a blue hue, has affinity to nuclei

hematoxylin (+)

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stains acidophilic tissue, has a pink hue, has affinity to cytoplasm

eosin (-)

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varieties of microscopes/microscopy

-bright field microscope/microscopy
-fluorescence microscope/microscopy
-bright field microscopy
-phase-contrast microscopy (unstained specimens used)

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histochemistry and cytochemistry steps:

1. section immersed in solution of enzyme's substrate
2. Enzyme acts on substrate
3. Section put in contact with a marker compound
4. Marker compound reacts w/ molecule produced by enzymatic action on substrate
5. Final product (insoluble and visible by light or electron microscopy) precipitates over site

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other histology techniques

histochemistry, cytochemistry, immunohistochemistry

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the plasma membrane (plasmalemma) is composed of ____, ____, _____ and _____

phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and chains of oligosaccharides

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Site where materials are exchanged between the cell and its environment; regulates the ion concentration of the cytoplasm; also recognition, regulatory, and interaction functions

plasma membrane

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thickness of plasma membrane

7.5 to 10 nm in thickness (EM)

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structure of plasma membrane

trilaminar (EM); fluid mosaic model

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bulk uptake of material across plasma membrane into the cell; folding and fusion of membrane to form vesicles

endocytosis

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“cell-eating”; phagosome; then fuses with lysosomes.

phagocytosis

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“cell-drinking”; pinocytotic vesicle; then fuses with lysosomes.

pinocytosis

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binding of the ligand to a receptor causes coated pits made of clathrin to form; pinches off to form a coated vesicle; fuses with endosomal compartment to form endosomes.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

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release of material across plasma membrane into the extracellular space; involves vesicle fusing with plasma membrane and releasing its contents.

exocytosis

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site of intracellular digestion and turnover of cellular components

lysosome

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size of lysosomes

0.05 micrometers to 0.5 micrometers

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lysosomes are membrane bound ____ that contain about 40 different _____

vesicles; hydrolytic enzymes

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function of ribosomes

protein synthesis

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size of ribosomes

20nm x 30 nm

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Ribosoms are composed of two different-sized subunits; the subunits are composed of ____ and ______; can be found free within the _____ or attached to membrane of the _______

rRNA; proteins; cytoplasm; endoplasmic reticulum

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Network of intercommunicating channels and sacs of membranes which enclose a space called a cisterna.

endoplasmic reticulum

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ribosomes on the cytosolic side of the membrane; produces proteins for secretion

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

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Regions of ER without ribosomes; cisternae are much more tubular; important in the production of phospholipids; abundant in cells that synthesize steroid hormones (i.e. steroid synthesis).

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)

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Completes post-translational modifications, packages, and sorts proteins synthesized in the RER.

golgi apparatus (golgi complex)

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the golgi apparatus is composed of smooth membranous _____; has a ____ (i.e., entry) face and a _____ (i.e., exit) face

saccules; cis; trans

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Membrane-enclosed organelles with enzymes arrays specialized for aerobic respiration and production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

mitochondria

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size of mitochondria

0.5 micrometers-1.0 micrometers in diameter and 5 micrometers-10 micrometers in length

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mitochondria have two membranes (i.e., inner and outer) and two compartments (i.e., _____); inner membrane folded to form _____ which project into matrix

matrix and intermembrane space; cristae

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Formed at the Golgi apparatus; store product until it is released via exocytosis

secretory vesicles or granules

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structure of secretory vesicles or granules

secretory product surrounded by membrane

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degrade denatured and nonfunctional polypeptides

proteasomes

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proteasomes are ____ proteins (i.e. no membrane); they have a ____ structure and are made of ____

cytoplasmic; cylindrical; 4 stacked rings

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oxidizes various potentially toxic molecules as well as prescription drugs

peroxisomes

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size of peroxisomes

0.5 micrometers in diameter

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peroxisomes are ____ membrane-limited organelles

spherical

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microtubules are fine tubular structures found in _____, _____, _____, _____ and ______

cytoplasmic matrix, centrioles, basal bodies, cilia, and flagella

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microtubules are important for formation and maintenance of _____; cellular transport of ____ and ______; create repeated beating motion

cell shape; organelles; vesicles

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size of microtubules

outer diameter of 24 nm and a dense wall 5 nm thick; hollow lumen

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length of microtubules

variable; can be many micrometers in length

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microtubules are composed of ____ and ____ tubulin molecules; they organize to form 13 parallel _______

alpha; beta; protofilaments

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in cilia and flagella, the same core structure of microtubules is present:

axoneme

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There is assembly of microtubules in a _____

9+2 pattern

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Nine peripheral doublets have an outer arm of ____ which connects to next doublet; ATP-dependent interaction cause _____- get repeated beating movement

dynein; conformational changes

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Allow for contractile activity within cells, including cell shape changes for endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell locomotion, moving cytoplasmic components, and cleavage during mitosis

microfilaments (actin filaments)

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size of microfilaments (actin filaments)

5-9 nm

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structure of microfilaments

composed of globular subunits organized into a double-stranded helix

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intermediate filaments are very ____; they provide ____ and _____

stable; mechanical strength; stability

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size of intermediate filaments

10-12 nm in diameter

82

structure of intermediate filaments

Protein subunits different in different cell types; rod-like subunit that organize into a cable-like structure

83

inclusions are cytoplasmic structures or deposits composed mainly of ______ or other substances; they are not considered _____

accumulated metabolites; organelles

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examples of inclusions

lipid droplets, glycogen granules, and pigment deposits

85

main components of the nucleus

1. nuclear envelope
2. chromatin
3. nucleolus

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chromatin is the _____ material in a largely ____ state

chromosomal; uncoiled

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2 types of chromatin

heterochromatin and euchromatin

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heterochromatin are ____ in EM and _____ in light microscopy

course granules; basophilic clumps

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euchromatin are less ____; they are ____ in EM and lightly ____ in light microscopy

coiled; fine granules; basophilic areas

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the nucleolus is...

a spherical, basophilic structure present in nuclei of cells active in protein synthesis; lots of rRNA in this location

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the process of cell suicide or programmed cell death

apoptosis

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apoptosis leads to the production of ______ which undergo ____ by neighboring cells

small, membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies; phagocytosis

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resolving power of human eye

0.2 mm

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resolving power of light microscope

0.2 micrometers

95

Resolving power of SEM

2.5 nm

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resolving power of TEM

0.05 nm (theoretical)/ 1.0 nm (tissue section)

97

resolving power of atomic force microscopy

50.0 pm

98

hematoxylin only would stain ____

blue

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eosin only would stain ____

pink

100

hematoxylin and eosin together would stain ____

purple

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hematoxylin is a ___ dye that would stain ____ tissue

basic; basophilic

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hematoxylin has a ____ hue and an affinity for _____

blue; nuclei

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eosin is a ____ dye and would stain ____ tissue

acidic; acidophilic

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eosin has a ____ hue and an affinity for _____

pink; cytoplasm

105

two parallel unit membranes separated by a narrow space; at sites where inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope fuse, nuclear pore complexes form; where regulation of the transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm takes place.

nuclear envelope

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spherical, highly basophilic structure present in nuclei of cells active in protein synthesis; lots of rRNA in this location

nucleolus