Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Medical Conditions II > Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Deck (36):
1

Diabetes

-impairment of glucose metab in which glucose is underutilized and blood glucose levels become abnormally elevated (hyperglycemia)

2

1 Person Dies from DM every _____

7 Seconds

3

Insulin

-protein hormone produced by islets of Langerhans cells in pancreas
-stimulates cellular uptake of glucose and suppress production of glucose

4

in absence of insulin ____

-blood glucose rises to abnormally elevated levels

5

Cause of diabetes mellitus

-impairment of glucose metabolism
-from defect in insulin production or reduction of insulin potency

6

DM

-diabetes mellitus

7

All cells in body require insulin for _____, except _____

-glucose to enter cell

-CNS tissue & working/exercising Mm tissue

8

Normal Physiology of Insulin/Glucose Relationship

-cells in body need glucose for energy
-glucose too large to pass across cell membrane
-insulin triggers transport proteins (GLUT 4) to go to cell wall
-GLUT 4 transports glucose into cell

9

Abnormal Physiology

-insulin not present/not sufficient amounts
-glucose collects in blood and can't enter cells
OR
-insulin present but cell wall/transport proteins resistant to its action
-glucose collects in blood and can't enter cells

10

Type 1 Diabetes diagnosed:

-in childhood (under 20 years)

11

Type 1 Diabetes

-body makes little/no insulin
-insulin injections required
-prone to ketoacidosis & disorders associated hyperglycemia

12

Type 2 Diabetes

-adulthood (>40)
-pancreas doesn't make enough insulin for normal blood gluocose levels
-body doesn't respond well to insulin

13

Children have a ____chance of developing diabetes

-1/3

14

Gestational Diabetes

-develops at any time during pregnancy who does not have diabetes

15

S/Sx Type 1 Diabetes

-polydipsia
-polyuria
-polyphagia
-weight loss
-fatigue
-nausea
-vomiting

16

S/Sx Type 2 Diabetes

-polydipsia
-polyuria
-polyphagia
-fatigue
-blurred vision
-slow-healing infections
-impotentce

17

Complications of DM

-brain damage (stroke, dementia)
-cardiovascular disease
-urinary/sexual dysfunction
-neuropathy
-diabetic coma
-retinopathy
-atherosclerosis
-kidney malfunction
-poor wound healing

18

to decrease risk of stroke:

-physical activity
-no smoking
-moderate alcohol consumption
-normal body weight
-low-fat diet
-high intake fruits/veggies

19

Neuropathy

-decr perfusion of nerve tissue
-accum of sorbitol, leading to fluid/electrolyte imbalance in nerve tissue

20

Atherosclerosis

-incr fat metabolism (type I)
-incr blood cholesterol levels (type I and II)
-connection between insulin resistance and atherosclerosis

21

Osteoporosis

-bone matrix formation inadequate if insufficient circulating insulin levels

22

Infection

-vascular disease leads to tissue hypoxia, decr healing ability
-pathogens which gain entrance feed on excess glucose in extracellular body tissues
-vascular disease also leads to decr WBC response

23

Atherosclerosis--->

-CVA
-MI
-PVD

24

Infection, neuropathy---->

-ulceration
-amputation

25

Retinopathy--->

blindness

26

Nephrophathy--->

-ESRD
-dialysis dependence

27

Osteoporosis--->

-spinal compression fractures
-hip fractures

28

Management of DM
-Reduce controllable risk factors

--obesity
--first degree relatives with DM
--HTN
--Hypertriglyceridemia
--previous evidence of impaired glucose homeostasis

29

DM Diagnosis

-2 hour glucose tolerance
-HbA1C (glycosylated Hb)
-fasting blood glucose

30

Management of DM

-earlier detection
-frequent monitoring

31

Exercise for DM

-monitor blood glucose levels before and after

32

Optimal blood glucose range prior to exercise

-100-150mg/dL

33

Optimal timing of exercise

-2-3 hours after a meal
-moderate intensity to prevent abrupt changes in blood glucose

34

Benefits of Exercise for DM

-incr insulin sensitivity for up to 16 hours post ex's
-improve lipid profile
-decr body fat
-reduce BP
-decr platelet stickiness
-decr stress
-prevent deconditioning
-incr socialization

35

Guidelines for Exercise

-150 min/week spread over at least 3 days each week
-resistance ex's 2-3x/week

36

Foot Care Instructions

-check feet daily
-wash feet daily (dry thoroughly)
-soften dry skin with lotion/patroleum jelly
-protect feet with comfy, well-fitting shoes
-ex's daily to promote circulation
-podiatrist
-remove socks and shoes at healthcare provider appts
-stop smoking