Immune System Flashcards Preview

Medical Conditions II > Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune System Deck (102):
1

Function of Immune System

-distinguish self from non-self
-protect from foreign substances
-nonspecific immunity
-provide specific or acquired immunity

2

Lymphoid Organs/Tissues

-adenoids
-tonsils
-lymph nodes
-lymphatic vessels
-thymus
-spleen
-bone marrow
-ileum (lymph nodes)
-liver

3

Bone Marrow

-produce B cells

4

Thymus

-produce T cell


(and Thymosine)

5

Lymph Nodes

-trap and process antigens

6

Spleen

-filters antigens from blood
-systemic protection

7

Liver

-reduce amount of toxins that can impair GI lining
-filters all bloood from GI system

8

Mucosa

-associated with lymphoid tissues
-provide lymphocytic responses to nearby tissues
-lines respiratory, digestive, urogenital tracts

9

Examples of Antigens

-virus
-food item
-pollen
-medication
-transplanted cells/tissue
-bacteria
-fungi
-protozoans
-parasites

10

Major Histocompatability Complex

-cell surface proteins that provide cell-to-cell communication regarding presence of antigens
-On every cell
-as unique as a finger print

11

MHC

-major histocompatability complex

12

Antigen

-substances that stimulate an immune response

13

Antigens also known as:

-immunogens

14

Antibodies

-immunoglobulins
-proteins that recognize antigens

-antigen-binding sites are complementary to antigens they recognize

15

Types of Immunoglobulins

-IgA
-IgG
-IgM
-IgD
-IgE

16

IgA

-prevent attachment of viruses/bacteria to epithelial tissues
-mucosal lining

17

IgG

-gamma globulin
-most abundnt
-crosses placenta for fetal immunity

18

IgM

-first circulating antibody made by newborn
-used to detect newborn infection

19

IgD

-initiates blood immune response

20

IgE

-involved in inflammation and allergic response

21

Granulocytes

-Basophils
-Eosinophils
-Neutrophils

22

Lymphocyte Types

-B Cells
-T Cells
-NK Cells

23

Monocytes

-Macrophates

24

Innate Immunity Cells

-Basophils
-Eosinophils
-Neutrophils
-NK Cells

25

Acquired Immunity Cells

-B Cells
-T Cells

26

Lymphocytes

-mononuclear immunocytes that provide humoral and cell-mediated immunity

27

Lymphocytes

-mononuclear immunocytes that provide humoral and cell-mediated immunity

-25-33% of total WBC count

28

Macrophages

-large mononuclear phagocyte providing phagocytosis
-contain infections
-help initiate immunological responses

-3-7% of total WBC Count

29

Monocytes

-migrate into tissues where they mature into macrophages

30

Neutrophil

-segmented polymorphonuclear granulocyte
-form pus

-57-67% of total WBC Count

31

Neutrophils can:

-squeeze through capillary walls and into infected tissue where they kill invaders then engulf the remnants by phagocytosis

32

Basophil

-segmented polymorphonuclear granulocyte

-0-0.075% of total WBC Count

33

Eosinophil

-segmented polymorphonuclear granulocyte

-1-4% of total WBC Count

34

NK Cells

-natural killer cells

35

Natural Killer Cells

-large granular lymphocytes kill some tumors and virus-infected cells w/o prior exposure

-can be used to treat cancer

36

Lymphocytes are responsible for:

-cell-mediated and humeral-mediated immunity

37

Lymphocytes recognize and activate:

-specific immune responses

38

Cytokines

-regular proteins that modulate the reaction of the host to antigens

39

Cytokines include:

-interleukins (IL)
-Interferons
-Tumor NEcrosis Factors (TNF)
-Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSF)

40

Interferons

-produced by virally infected cells early in infection to limit the spread of infection
-protect neighboring cells (non-infected) cells from invasion
-inhibit tumor growth

41

Lines of Defense

-1st
-2nd
-3rd

42

First Line of Defense

-external barriers prevent the infecting agent from penetrating cells and tissues

43

2nd Line of Defense

-inflammatory response and phagocytosis

44

3rd Line of Defense

- acquired immune response

45

Types of Acquired Immunity

-passive
-ative

46

Active and Passive Immunity may be:

-natural or artificial

47

Acquired Immunity Components

-Humoral (B cells)
-Cell-mediated (T cells)

48

Acquired Immunity Components

-Humoral (B cells)
-Cell-mediated (T cells)

49

Non-Specific Lines of Defense

-Skin
-Mucous Membranes
-Chemical balance
-Antimicrobial substances
-Fever
-Phagocytic Cells
-Complement system/cytokines
-Natural killer cells

50

Specific Lines of Defense:
Lymphocytes

-T and B cells that recognize specific pathogens are part of the acquired immune response

51

Specific Lines of Defense:
Memory Lymphocytes

-have memory of antigen that last a long time

52

Specific Lines of Defense:
Lymphocytes can:

-self-destruct or change into a new cell when defense is completed

53

Innate Immunity

-inborne
non-specific aspects of tissue defense
-first line of defense to prevent entrance of pathogens
-Skin/mucosal barriers
-non-specific inflammatory response

54

Innate Immunity response is always

-the same intensity regardless of number of times pathogen is encountered

55

What Happens in Innate Immune Response (Mechanisms)

-sloughing of skin
-phagocytosis of bacteria
-destruction of pathogens by acid secretions
-digestive enzymes in GI tract

56

Acquired Immunity

-specific and memory
-after birth
-destroy foreign substances
-prevent proliferation of malignant cells
-occurs after invasion by foreign agent
-pathogens in body trigger response

57

Acquired Immunity Over Time

-response will increase and speed and intensity each time specific pathogen is encountered

58

Active Acquired Immunity

-contact with antigen or product derived from antigen
-antibodies or T-cell response produced by hose in response to contact

59

Passive Acquired Immunity

-contact with antibodies from actively-immunized person or via innoculation
-triggers temporary acquired immune response

60

Examples of Active Acquired Immunity

-contact with infectious agent or product of infectious agent

61

Examples of Passive Acquired Immunity

-injection of serum from individual previously immunized or recovered from disease
-injection of serum from animal immunized with tetanus toxoid
-placental transfer of antibodies from mom to fetus
-transfer of antibodies in mom's milk

62

B-Cell

-humoral immunity
-develops circulating antibodies to attack antigens
-antibodies bind to foreign body

63

T-Cell

-cell-mediated immunity
-activates formation of lymphocytes designed to destroy the foreign agent

64

B-Cell

-humoral immunity
-develops antibodies to attack antigens
-antibodies bind to foreign body
-recognizes one antigen
-produce memory cells for future responses

65

T-Cell

-cell-mediated immunity
-recognizes one antigen
-activates formation of lymphocytes designed to destroy the foreign agent
-attacks antigen directly

66

T Cells Produce:

-memory cells
-T-cytotoxic (killer) cells
-T-Helper Cells
-T-Suppressor cells
-Lymphokine-Producing Cells

67

Primary Immune response

-production of specific antibodies (immunoglobulins)

68

Secondary Immune response

-increase activation with increased exposure of memory cells to the antigen

69

Secondary Immune response

-increase activation with increased exposure of memory cells to the antigen

70

Stem cells

-differentiate in bone marrow
-involved in humoral/antibody-mediated immunity

71

Activated B cells:

-incapacitate the antigen

72

B cells mature into:

-plasma B cells, which produce antibodies

73

Processed T cells leave the:

-thymus and spread to lymphoid tissues throughout the body shortly after birth

74

T Cells recognize:

-pathogens, search them out and destroy them

75

T Cells recognize:

-pathogens, search them out and destroy them

76

T Lymphocytes are capable of:

-turning on/off entire immune system

77

T8 cells

-cytotoxic cells are primary active responders

78

Cell-Mediated response is important in

-recognizing body's own tissue
-loss can lead to autoimmune disorder

79

Cell-Mediated response is important in

-recognizing body's own tissue
-loss can lead to autoimmune disorder

80

Link Between Immune System and CNS

-ANS
-Neuroendocrine outflow (pit gland)

81

Activated immunocompetent cells can:

-cross blood-brain barrier

82

Regulation of Immune Response

-initiation by antigens
-intercellular recognition & binding
-intercellular signaling

83

Hormonal Regulation of Immune Response

-thymus gland
-ant pit

84

Neural Influences on Regulation of Immune Response

-sympathetic NS
(innervates thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes)

85

Apoptosis

-auto-destruction of cells
-if unable to defend against mutation cell self-destructs

86

Apoptosis response decreases:

-decreases with age

87

Apoptosis is enhanced by:

-exercise

88

Factors Influencing Immunity

-trauma
-disease
-pollutants
-radiation
-UV light
-drugs
-age
-gender
-nutrition
-genetics
-reproductive status
-STRESS

89

GI Acidity with age:

-decreased acidity

90

Bladder with age:

less elastic

91

Thymus with age

-turns to fat

92

AGE:
innate response

-not always automatic in elderly

93

AGE:
-lymphocytes

-react to infection differently

94

In elderly (>70) more likely to produce

auto-antibodies that attack self

95

Moderate Exercise:
On Immune Cells

-increased #

(most increase during and after)

96

Strenuous Exercise:
On Immune Cells

-depressed

97

Strenuous Exercise:
On Immune Cells

-depressed

98

Immunodeficiency Syndromes

-primary
-secondary
-iatrogenic

99

Primary Immunodeficiency

-defect of T cells, B cells or lymphoid tissue
-congenital condition

100

Secondary Immunodeficiency

-underlying disease/factor impairing response
-follows disease/event

101

Iatrogenic Immunodeficiency

-induced by drug or physical agents

ex. chemo, corticosteroids, radiation

102

Iatrogenic Immunodeficiency

-induced by drug or physical agents

ex. chemo, corticosteroids, radiation, splenectomy