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Flashcards in Infectious Diseases--Overview Deck (58):
1

Infectious Disease

-consequences of microbial invasions

2

Host

-any organism capable of supporting another organism's nutrition and growth

3

Infection

-presence and multiplication of living organisms on or within host
--healthy infection vs pathogenic infection

4

Factors Influencing Severity of Infectious Diseases

-Virulence
-Pathogens
-Opportunistic Pathogens

5

Virulence

-disease-producing potential

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Pathogens

-virulent organisms capable of causing disease

7

Opportunistic Pathogens

-attact vulnerable hosts
-(wakened immunity, illness, or medical therapy)

8

Incubation Period

-reproduction of pathogen without manifest symptoms

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Prodromal Slide

-Initial appearance of symptoms

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Acute Stage

-host experiences maximum impact from infectious process
-rapid proliferation and dissemination of pathogen

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Convalescent Period

-containment of infection
-tissue repair

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Resolution Stage

-resolution of symptoms
-elimination of pathogen

13

4 Factors of Virulence

-toxins
-adhesion factors
-evasive factors
-invasive factors

14

Common S/Sx

-fever, chills, malaise (early)
-enlarged and painful lymph nodes
-rash, skin lesion
-joint effusion
-diarrhea
-frequency, urgency
-cough, sore throat
-nausea, vomiting
-headache, stiff neck
-myalgia
-convulsions
-CONFUSION
-TACHYCARDIA
-HYPOTENSION

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Lymph Nodes in Cancer

-large and painless

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Confusion in elderly=

-very common 1st sign of infectious disease
-ex. from urinary tract infection
-(also tachycardia and hypotension)

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Nosocomial Infection

-infections acquired during hospitalization

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Eliminate Transmission of Pathogens

-hand washing
-antibiotics to prevent surgical site infections
-maximum barrier protections during central lines
-ensure pt with certain infections placed in isolation

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Infectious Patients

-risk of transmitting infections FROM them to others
-protect self and other pts

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Immunosuppressed Patients

-risk of transmitting infections from us or pts TO them
-protect pt

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Chain of Infection Transmission

1. Causative Agents, bacteria, pathogen, or virus
2. Survival of pathogen in reservoir in human, animal, inanimate objects
3. Portal of exit (how to leave reservoir)
4. Transmission (airborne, contact, droplet, vehicle modes)
5. Portal of Entry
6. Transmission to susceptible host

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Fomite

-contaminated inanimate object

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Substance

-vehicle for transmission
-ex. feces, blood, urine

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Portal of Exit

-pathogen's method of leaving reservoir
-(secretions, excretions, blood, emesis)

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Transmission Types

-airborne
-contact
-droplet
-vector
-vehicle modes

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Vector

-anything that allows the transport and/or transmission of pathogen

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Portal of Entry

-how pathogen gets in
-ex. through non-intact skin, blood, mucous membrane, inhalation, ingestion, percutaneous injection

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Methods of entry

-penetration
-direct contact
-ingestion
-inhalation

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Penetration

-disruption in integrity of body's surface
-eg. abrasions, burns, lesions, bites

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Direct Contact

-transmission directly from infected tissue or secretions to exposed, intact mucous membranes
-eg. sexual transmission via secretions

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E. Coli

-from stool of infected persons
-spread by drinking or contact with sewage contaminated water, or contaminated food

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Universal Precautions

-ALL PATIENTS, regardless of infectious status

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List of Universal Precautions

-wash/sanitize hands before and after pt contact
-clean treatment area
-cover any open lesions on self
-use PPE as needed
-use medical aseptic technique (as needed)
-place biohazard materials in appropriate receptacle

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PPE

-personal protective equipment

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Transmission-Based Precautions for Preventing Infection

(pts with known or presumed infectious agent)
-hand wash/sanitize
-gloves
-mask
-gown
-pt care equipment

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Diagnostic Measures

-Culture
-Serology
-CSF analysis
-Urinalysis
-body temperature
-plain films
-CT

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Treatment goal

-rid body of pathogen and restore normal physiologic function to damaged tissue

38

Most infectious diseases are:

-self-limiting
-little to no medical therapy required

39

Treatment Choices

-antimicrobial agents
-immunologic agents (stim host immune system)
-surgical removal

40

Antimicrobial Drugs

-chemotherapeutic
-Bacteriocidal
-Bacteriostatic
-Antimicrobial Spectrum of Activity

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Chemotheraputic Drugs

-selective toxicity to invading organisms with little effect on host

42

2 forms of bacteria

-rigid cell wall (gram-positive)
-alcohol-/acetone-labile cell membrane (gram-negative)
-type of cell wall determines best antibacterial agent

43

Gram Positive

-rigid cell wall

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Gram Negative

-Alcohol- or acetone-labile cell membrane

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Bacteriocidal

-at sufficient levels in host, will kill invading organisms

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Bacteriostatic

-inhibit bacterial growth without killing organisms
-high failure rate in CNS, heart and other reservoirs in body

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Antimicrobial Spectrum of Activity

-number/types of bacteria the drug is effective in treating
-broad vs narrow spectrum

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Broad Spectrum Agent

effective against many different types of bacteria

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Narrow Spectrum Agent

-effective against only a few or one strain of bacteria

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Examples of Infectious Diseases in PT

-pneumonia
-tuberculosis
-hepatitis
-AIDS
-Leprosy (hansen's)
-meningitis
-chicken pox

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Suppurative

-pus forming

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Antibiotic-Associated Colitis

long courses of antibiotic meds can decrease colonies of normal GI bacteria leading to colonization by spore-forming bacterium Clostridium Difficile
-voluminous diarrhea-->dehydration

53

Respiratory syncytial virus

-infants, young children, older adulta and immunocompromised
-transmit through droplets, eyes/nose

54

Infections with prosthetics and Implants

-prosthetic joint sepsis is characterized by INCREASING joint pain
-darkened areas on bone scan

55

Someone with droplet precautions also have

-contact precautions
(b/c droplets contain infection and land on stuff)

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Innate resistance

-no transport mechanism to move drug across bacterial cell wall

57

Acquired resistance

-spontaneous genetic mutation
-communication with other bacteria through plasmids

58

Plasmids

-extrachromosomal genetic material in cytoplasm
-R plasmid=material for drug resistance