Endocrine Pathology Flashcards Preview

Medical Conditions II > Endocrine Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Pathology Deck (83):
1

Pituitary Syndromes

-gigantism
-dwarfism
-acromegaly
-diabedes insipidus

2

Thyroid Syndromes

-hyperthyroidism
-hypothyroidism
-thyroid cancer

3

Parathyroid Syndromes

-hyperparathyroidism
-hypoparathyroidism

4

Adrenal Syndromes

-addison's disease
-cushing's syndrome
-conn's syndrome

5

Pancreatic Syndromes

-Diabetes Mellitus (Type I & II)

6

Endocrine Disorder Hierarchy

-Primary (Gland)
-Secondary (Pituitary)
-Tertiary (Hypothalamus)

7

Gigantism

-overgrowth of long bones
-caused by increased GH produced during childhood

8

Dwarfism

-too little growth hormone produced

9

Acromegaly Defn

-too much GH produced during adulthood

10

Acromegaly Treatment

-radiation/surgical removal of pit gland
-thyroid, cortisone, and hormone replacement post surgery

11

PT Implications of Acromegaly Post-surgery

-sneeze, cough, blowing nose is contraindicated
-monitor blood glucose
-osteophyte formation & widening of joint spaces

12

Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

-rare disorder of neurohypophysis: deficient production/response of ADH

ADH deficiency--->imbalance of H2O

13

S/Sx Diabetes Insipidus

-polydipsia
-polyurea/nocturia
-dehyddration

14

Neurogenic DI

-defect in synthesis or release of ADH
-usually damage to pit gland

15

Management of neurogenic DI

-drugs to stimulate ADH
-vasopressin

16

Nephrogenic DI

-kidneys don't respond to ADH
-excessive urination & thirst

17

Management of Nephrogenic DI

-drugs to increase sodium excretion by kidneys (diuretics)
-anti-inflammatory meds

18

Diabetes Mellitus (versus DI)

-disorder of pancreas
-insufficient insulin-->abn glucose metab
-S/Sx: polydipsia, polyuria, increased appetite, fatigue

19

DI (versus DM)

-disorder of pit gland or kidney
-ADH deficient
-S/Sx poly dipsia, polyuria, dehydration

20

PT Implications of DI

-side effects of ADH administration include contraction of smooth muscle of vasculature
-side effects of water intoxication

21

Side Effects of Water Intoxication

(3)

-pulmonary crackles
-cerebral edema
-seizures

22

Side effects of ADH Administration

(3)

-incr BP
-GI Irritability
-coronary arteries

23

Hyperthyroidism

-imbalance of metabolism caused by over production of thyroid hormone

24

Common type of Hyperthyroidism

-Grave's Disease

25

Grave's Disease

-common type of hyperthyroidism
-caused by immunoregulation defect in genetically predisposed individuals, leading to production of thyroid stimulating antibodis

26

Causes of Hyperthyroidism

(4)

-non-cancerous growths of thyroid/pit glands
-tumors of testes/ovaries
-ingestion of excessive thyroid hormone
-ingestion excessive iodine

27

S/Sx Hyperthyroidism

(12)

-weight loss
-incr appetite
-nervousness
-restlessness
-heat intolerance
-sweating
-diarrhea
-tremor
-palpitations
-periarthritis
-weakness
-goiter

28

Vitals with Hyperthyroidsim

-incr cardiopulmonary function
-SBP elevated

29

Hyperthyroidism Lab Tests

-TSH decreased
-T3 elevated
-T4 normal

30

Storm

-thyroid crisis
-acute worsening of hyperthryroidism Sx (from stress/infection)

31

Sx of Hyperthyroidism Storm

(3)

-fever
-decreased mental alertness
-abdominal pain

32

Hyperthyroidism Treatment

(4)

-antithyroid medications
-radioactive iodine
-surgery (remove thyroid)
-beta-blockers (for heart Sx)

33

PT implications of Hyperthyroidism

(6)

-monitor vitals
-heat intol
-calcific tentonitis
-precaution with raio iodine therapy
-exercise intolerance
-decreased ex's capacity

34

most common disorder of thyroid function

-hypothyroidism

35

Hypothyroidism

-deccrease in thyroid hormone-->decreased metabolism

36

Hypothyroidism S/Sx

(14)

-fatigue
-weakness
-weight gain
-coarse, dry hair
-dry, rough pale skin
-hair loss
-myxedema
-constipation
-depression
-irritability
-memory loss
-abnormal menstrual cycles
-decreased libido
-muscle cramps/muscle aches

37

Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism

-blood tests of TSH, T4

38

Treatment of Hypothyroidism

(1)

-thyroid hormone pill

39

Goiter

-enlarged thyroid gland
-enlarges to compensate for insufficient hormone production

40

Goiter associated with/causes:

(4)

-hyperthyroidism
-lack of iodine in diet
-inflammation
-tumors

41

PT Implications of Hypothyroidism

(5)

-edematous tissues prone to skin tears/breakdown
-watch for signs of hyperthyroidism
-gradual increase ex's tolerance
-watch for rhabdomyolysis
-decreased SV & HR-->decr CO

42

Thyroid Cancer Profile

-rare
-women>men (2:1)
-40-60 years old

43

Risk factors of Thyroid Cancer

-Hx radiaion to neck

44

Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

-fine-needle aspiration/biopsy

45

treatment of Thyroid Cancer

(2)

-surgical resection of thyroid
-radiation

46

PT considerations of Thyroid Cancer

-any palpable mass discovered in exam of neck demands referral
-dysphagia, dyspnea, hoarseness

47

Hyperparathyroidism

-primary/secondary/tertiary
-increase PTH disruptes calcium/phosphate ion balance in blood

48

S/Sx Hyperparathyroidism

(4)

-bone damage
-hypercalcemia
-kidney damage
-GI complaints

49

Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism

(1)

-PTH levels in hypercalcemic clients

50

Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism

(4)

-surgical excision of parathyroid glands
-pharmocologic: decrease serum calcium levels
-inhibit resorption of bone
-promote excretion of calcium in urine

51

PT Considerations of Hyperparathyroidism

(9)

-bone pain
-pathologic fractures
-chronic renal failure
-proximal muscle weakness
-muscle atrophy
-myalgias
-gout/pseudogout
-joint hypermobility
-osteogenic synovitis

52

Hypoparathyroidism

-insufficient secretion of PTH
-disrupts calcium/phosphate balance in blood

53

Low PTH cause:

(3)

-decr bone reabsorption
-GI tract absorption slows
-serum calcium levels fall

54

S/Sx Hypoparathyroidism

(4)

-neuromuscular tetany
-hypocalcemia
-+Trousseau's Sign (arm)
-+ Chvostek's Sign (face)

55

Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism

(3)

-Hx
-exam
-lab values

56

Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism

(1)

-increase serum calcium levels (IV)

57

PT Considerations of Hypoparathyroidism

(1)

-muscle twitching first sign of acute tetany

58

Adrenal Insufficiency

-Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)

59

Result of Adrenal Insufficiency

-decr in glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens

60

Adrenal Insufficiency profile

-women>men
-40-60 years old

61

S/Sx Adrenal Insufficiency

(11)

-hypoglycemia
-fatigue
-hypotension
-weight loss
-NV
-dehydration
-decr CO
-decr stress tolerance
-decr coordination
-crave salty food
-incr skin pigmentation

62

diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency

(2)

-blood/urine hormonal assays
-clinical resposne to ACTH

63

Treatment of Adrenal Insufficiency

(2)

-pharmacologic
-synthetic corticosteroids/mineralocorticoids

64

PT Considerations of Adrenal Insufficiency

-be aware of side-effects of long-term steroid treatment (osteoporosis, myopathy, AVN)

65

Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Syndromes

-Cushing's Syndrome
-Conn's Syndrome
-Adrenal Hyperplasia

66

Cushing's Syndrome

-too much cortisol (glucocorticoid)

67

Conn's Syndrome

-too much mineralocorticoid (aldosterone)

68

Adrenocortical Hyperfunction cause

(2)

-overstimulation of adrenal gland
-medication-induced hypercortisolism

69

S/Sx Adrenocortical Hyperfunction

(5)

-protuberant abdomen
-poor wound healing
-thin skin
-general weakness
-marked osteoporosis

70

Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease

-presentation
-levels of urine & serum cortisol

71

Treatment of Cushing's Disease
(4)

-decrease cortisol levels gradually
-radiation
-surgery
-drug therapy

72

PT considerations for Cushing's disease

-aware of side effects of long term steroid treatment (osteoporosis, AVN, myopathy)

73

S/Sx Cushing Syndrome

(4)

-lipoma on back of neck/upper TS
-bruise easily
-round face
-abnormal facial hair growth

74

S/Sx Conn's Syndrome

(9)

-hypernatremia
-hypervolemia
-hypokalemia
-metablic alkalosis
-HTN
-polyuria
-polydipsia
-DM

75

Fasting Blood Glucose Levels

80-120

60-100 for children

76

Diagnosis of Conn's Syndrome

-elevation in serum and urine hormone levels
-CT scan of abdomen for tumors

77

Treatment of Conn's Syndrome

-surgical excision of tumor
-pharmacologic: incr sodium excretion, decr HTN, increase K+

78

PT Considerations Conn's syndrome

(4)

-evidence of tetany
-cardiac arrhythmias
-parestheisas
-muscle weakness

79

Hypoglycemia

-Low Blood Sugar
-not enough to fuel body's blood cells

80

Causes of Hypoglycemia

(8)

-too much insulin in diabetics
-other drugs
-psychological disturbances
-alcohol intake w/o eating
-missing a meal
-strenuous ex's
-insulin producing tumor in pancreas
-hypokalemia

81

Sx of Hypocalcemia

(12)

-shakiness
-dizziness
-sweating
-hunger
-HA
-irritability
-pale skin color
-sudden moodiness
-behavior changes
-clumsy/jerky movements
-diff paying attn/confusion
-tingling around mouth

82

Diagnosis of Hypoglycemia

(4)

-med Hx
-med exam
-blood tests
-blood sugar/insulin levels

83

Treatment of Hypoglycemia

(4)

-consume sugar
-glucagon
-small frequent meals