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Medical Conditions II > Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology Deck (58)
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1

Cancer

indicates any of various types of growths that are uncontrolled by normal cellular mechanisms

2

Malignant Neoplasm Synonyms

-Tumor
-malignancy
-carcinoma

3

Types of Cancer

-Primary
-Secondary
-Carcinoma in situ

4

Primary Cancer

-arising from cells local to the structure
-primary cell usually determines behavior of cancer

5

Secondary Cancer

-arising from cells that have metastasized from other sites

6

Carcinoma in Situ

-malignant cell changes in epithelial tissue that do not extend beyond the basement membrane (pre-invasive)

7

Metaplasia

-Reversible change in cell

8

Dysplasia

-permanent abnormal changes in cells

9

Classifications of Neoplasms

-Epithelial
-Connective/Muscle Tissue
-Lymphoid
-Hematopoietic
-Miscellaneous (reproductive glands, placenta, thymus)

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Staging of Cancer

-distinct phase or period in development of disease
-what is the EXTENT of the disease?

11

Grading of Neoplasms

-degree of malignancy and differentiation of malignant cells
-Grade I-IV
-less differentiated=worse
-what is the severity of the tumor?

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TNM System

-Classifies cancer based on Tumor size, lymph Node status, Metastases presence
-Tumor, Node, Metastases

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Grade I

well-differentiated cells

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Grade II

moderately-differentiated cells

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Grade III

poorly-differentiated cells

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Grade IV

Undifferentiated
(worst)

17

Sources of Cancer (2)

-Endogenous
-Exogenous

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Endogenous Origin

-factors that are outside the patient's control
-familial pattern/genetic

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Exogenous Origin

-risk factors, within patient's control
-chemical agents, physical agents, drugs/EtOH, hormones
-inflammatory disease

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Risk Factor Examples

-Age
-Lifestyle (tobacco, diet, nutrition, sexual behaviors)
-Geography
-Ethnicity
-Stress

21

What are oncogenes?

-gene that is likely to produce or is a marker of cancer

22

What are tumor suppressor genes?

-genes that are good at minimizing tumor growth

23

What are the mechanisms of the spread of cancer?

-Metastasis
-Invasion

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Invasion

-growth by direct or continuous extension of the tumor into neighboring tissue

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Metastasis

-growth of neoplastic cells at a remote or non-contiguous site in the body

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How do metastasis cells travel to new sites?

-bloodstream
-lymphatic system

27

Angiogenesis

-creation of new circulation (for secondary tumor)

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Most common sites of metastasis

(L3B2)
-Lymphnodes, lungs, liver, bone, brain

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Other sites of metastasis

-skin, ovaries and adrenal glands

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Most metastases occur within ________

-3-5 years;
-but can occur 15-20 after original appearance of disease