Flashcards in Oncology Deck (58)
indicates any of various types of growths that are uncontrolled by normal cellular mechanisms
Malignant Neoplasm Synonyms
Types of Cancer
-Carcinoma in situ
-arising from cells local to the structure
-primary cell usually determines behavior of cancer
-arising from cells that have metastasized from other sites
Carcinoma in Situ
-malignant cell changes in epithelial tissue that do not extend beyond the basement membrane (pre-invasive)
-Reversible change in cell
-permanent abnormal changes in cells
Classifications of Neoplasms
-Miscellaneous (reproductive glands, placenta, thymus)
Staging of Cancer
-distinct phase or period in development of disease
-what is the EXTENT of the disease?
Grading of Neoplasms
-degree of malignancy and differentiation of malignant cells
-what is the severity of the tumor?
-Classifies cancer based on Tumor size, lymph Node status, Metastases presence
-Tumor, Node, Metastases
Sources of Cancer (2)
-factors that are outside the patient's control
-risk factors, within patient's control
-chemical agents, physical agents, drugs/EtOH, hormones
Risk Factor Examples
-Lifestyle (tobacco, diet, nutrition, sexual behaviors)
What are oncogenes?
-gene that is likely to produce or is a marker of cancer
What are tumor suppressor genes?
-genes that are good at minimizing tumor growth
What are the mechanisms of the spread of cancer?
-growth by direct or continuous extension of the tumor into neighboring tissue
-growth of neoplastic cells at a remote or non-contiguous site in the body
How do metastasis cells travel to new sites?
-creation of new circulation (for secondary tumor)
Most common sites of metastasis
-Lymphnodes, lungs, liver, bone, brain
Other sites of metastasis
-skin, ovaries and adrenal glands