Types of Infectious Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Types of Infectious Diseases Deck (70):
1

Examples of Infectious Diseases

-pneumonia
-Tuberculosis
-hepatitis
-leprosy
-chickenpox
-meningitis

2

Examples of Bacterial Infections

-staphylococcus
-streptococcus
-pseudomonas
-clostridial myonecrosis (gangrene)

3

Examples of Viral Infections

-bloodborne=hepatitis B & C, HIV
-Herpes virus
-viral respiratory infections

4

Most common suppurative infection:

-staphylococcus aureus

(all ages)

5

Staphyloccocus Aureus affects:

-lungs
-heart
-soft tissue
-joints
-bones

6

Leading cause of endocarditis

-staphylococcus aureus

7

Prevention of staphylococcus aureus

-hand washing/sanitizing

8

Treatment of Staphylococcus Aureus

-drainage
-antibiotics

9

Diseases caused by staphylococcal infections

-Table 8-6, page 317
-necrotizing fasciitis
-cellulitis
-myositis
-pneumonia
-MRSA (a form of staph)

10

Streptococcus causes:

-suppurative and non-suppurative infections

11

Most common bacterial pathogen to humans

-streptococcus

(every age)

12

Pseudomonas most commonly acquired in___

-hospitals, nursing homes

13

Pseudomonas can lead to:

-pneumonia
-wound infections
-UTI
-sepsis

14

Pseudomonas thrives in:

-moist environments

(pools, whirlpools, respiratory equipment, liquid soap dispensers, hubbard tanks)

15

Clostridial Myonecrosis

-gangrene
-3 forms (dry, moist, gas)
-opportunistic

16

People at risk for clostridial myonecrosis

-following significant trauma (civilian or military)
-septic abortions

17

Prevention of clostridial myonecrosis

-wound hygiene
-especially high risk pts

18

Pneumonia

-inflammatino of parenchyma of lungs

19

causes of Pneumonia

-staphylococcus (bacteria)
-streptococcus (bacteria)
-viral infection
-mycoplasma infection
-inhalation of toxins
-aspiration of food, fluid, vomitus

20

Most commonly encountered disease

-pneumonia

-10% of adult admissions and leading cause of death

21

Risk Factors for Pneumonia

-smoking
-influenza
-sinusitis
-chronic bronchitis
-DM
-uremia
-dehydration
-malnutrition
-AIDs
-confinement in medical setting
-treatment with antineoplastic chemo or immunosuppressants
-older age
-young infants
-bedridden/disabled ppl
-periodontal disease
-problems with swallowing
-altered consciousness
-problems with medicine taking
-neuromuscular disease
-surgery
-tracheal intubation

22

Streptococcus pneumoniae

-bacterial pathogen that affects children and adults world wide (pneumonia)

23

Pneumonia Pathogenesis

-endotoxins released by pathogens damage bronchial mucous and alveocapillary membranes
-inflammation and edema fill terminal bronchioles

24

S/Sx of Pneumonia

-sudden/sharp pleuritic pain agg by movement
-hacking/productive cough
-rust/green sputum
-decreased chest excursion
-cyanosis
-headache
-fatigue/fever/chills
-generalized aches
-myalgia of thighs/calf Mm

25

Primary Prevention of Pneumonia

-standard precautions
-vaccine (65+ yo, high risk groups)
-early ambulation post-surgery
-positioning to prevent aspiration

26

Pneumonia Treatment

-antibiotics
-fluids
-ventilatory support if needed

27

PT management of pneumonia

-pulmonary hygiene
-deep breathing
-coughing
-therapeutic positioning
-chest PT

28

clostridium difficile

-spore-forming bacteria

29

S/Sx clostridium difficile

-voluminous watery stools
-dehydration
-Later: reactive arthritis

30

Prevention of clostridium difficile

-sanitizer doesn't work
-washing with soap and water only
-resistant to many antibiotics

31

Hepatitis

-bloodborne virus that attacks liver

32

Hepatitis B leads to

-cardiac valve disease
-jaundice
-arthralgias
-rash
-dark urine
-anorexia
-nausea
-painful abdominal bloating
-fever
-clay-colored stools

-high risk for healthcare workers

33

Hepatitis C

-80% develop chronic hepatitis
-30% also develop cirrhosis

34

Herpes Virus

-5 types
-HSV-1 through HSV-5

35

HSV-1 & HSV-2

-simplex causes lesions on mouth and genitals

36

HSV-3

-zoster associated with chicken pox and shingles

37

HSV-4

mononucleuosis (kissing disease)

38

HSV-5

-cytomegalovirus
-brain affected in utero

39

VZV

-varicella-zoster virus
-primary: varicella--chickenpox
-secondary: herpes zoster--shingles
-persist in sensory nerve ganglia

40

Transmission of VZV

-droplets
(within 3 feet of pt)

41

Primary Varicella Zoster

-chickenpox
-skin rash of blister like lesions--body, face, scalp, trunk, fever

42

Spreading of Chickenpox

-coughing/sneezing
-direct contact
-aerosolization of virus from skin lesions

43

Secondary VZV

-shingles
-painful skin rash in dermatomal pattern

44

person can contract chicken pox from:

-someone with shingles
(direct contact)

45

Precautions of Primary VZV

-contact precautions
-airborne precautions

46

Precautions of Secondary VZV

-contact precautions

47

Influenza

-viral respiratory infection

48

Influenza contracted via:

-droplets

49

Incubation period of influenza

-1-5 days

50

S/Sx Influenza

-fever/chills
-malaise
-Muscular ache
-substernal soreness
-headache
-nasal stuffiness
-sore throat
-occasional nausea

51

Influenza: vulnerable populations develop___

-acute sinusitis
-otitis media
-purulent bronchitis
-pneumonia

52

S/Sx of infections of prosthetic/implants

-INCREASING joint pain

53

most common vector borne infectious disease in US

-lyme disease

54

latent symptoms of lyme disease

-skin rash
-swelling
-recurrent joint pain (knees most)
-neurologic manifestations

55

S/Sx Lyme Disease

-BULLSEYE rash
-NT, burning in arms legs
-twitching/weakness/paralysis of face/arms/legs
-sharp pain in arms/legs/neck/back
-increased light sensitivity
-memory/concentration/learning problems
-speech problems
-mood swings/depression
-abnormal thought processes

56

Myobacterium Tuberculosis

-TB=an infective inflammatory systemic disease affecting the lungs and may involve other organs.
-drug resistant strains present

57

TB method of transmission

-airborne
-spread of infectious nuclei through sneezing, laughing, speaking, singing, coughing

58

Risk Factors of TB

-older adults
-HIV
-low SES
-over crowded populations
-using injected drugs
-kids under 5
-prison inmates
-DM
-end stage renal disease
-immunocompromised

59

TB pathophysiolgy

-nuclei with bacteria become established in the lung with bacilli multiplying
-epithelial cells proliferate and surround bacilli forming tubercles
-residual lesions are sites for potential reactivation

60

S/Sx of TB

-productive cough >3 weeks
-weight loss
-night sweats
-fever
-fatigue
-malaise
-anorexia
-rales
-may involve brain ans spinal cord

61

Primary Prevention of TB

-cover mouth/nose
-room ventilation (neg pressure)
-prevent overcrowding
-vaccine

62

Secondary Prevention of TB

-skin test followed by chest x-ray
-anti-TB meds (7-9 months worth)
-chemotherapy

63

Mycobacterium Leprae

-Leprosy
-primarily affects skin, peripheral nerves, eyes and mucosa of upper respiratory tract

64

Diagnosis of Leprosy

-skin lesion consistent with leprosy with definite sensory loss (w/ or w/o thickened nerves)
-positive skin smears

65

S/Sx Leprosy

-skin lesions
-lesions less pigmented or reddish/copper colored
-macules/papules/nodules most common
-sensory loss

66

Bacterial Meningitis

-mostly from streptococcus pneumoniae

67

Population at risk for bacterial meningitis

-very young
-very old
-people in close quarters

68

S/Sx Bacterial Meningitis

-fever
-headache
-stiff, painful neck
-flexion of legs with neck flexion (brudzinski's sign)
-seizures
-vomiting
-coma

69

Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis

-lumbar puncture

70

Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis

-antibiotics
-must be able to cross blood brain barrier