Endocrine System Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Medical Conditions II > Endocrine System Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Anatomy Deck (59):
1

Endocrine System is made of:

-glands that release hormones directly into bloodstream for chemical signaling of target cells

2

Glands Include

-hypothalamus
-pituitary gland
-pineal gland
-thyroid gland
-parathyroid gland
-thymus
-adrenal glands
-pancreas
-ovaries
-testes

3

Endocrine system helps regulate:

-various body functions by synthesizing and releasing hormones

4

Hormones

-chemical substances created by body that control body functions
-act as messengers

5

Most Hormones are:

-proteins (amino acids)
-steroids

6

Functions Controlled by Hormones:

-activities of entire organs
-growth and development
-sexual characteristics
-responses to stress/injury
-absorption of nutrients
-energy metabolism
-water/electrolyte balance
-reproduction, birth and lactation

7

Paracrine

-affect cells that produces it and the cells immediately around it

8

Endocrine Glands:

-no duct system
-released into blood

9

Exocrine Glands

-contain ducts
-release out onto surface

10

Hypothalamus secretes hormones that:

-make other endocrine glands secrete their hormones

11

Hypothalamus Location

-base of optic chain

12

Hypothalamus on Pituitary

-secretes hormones that stimulate/suppress hormone release from pituitary gland
-sends neural impulses to pituitary gland

13

Hypothalamus Aids in:

-controlling water balance
-sleep
-temperature
-appetite
-blood pressure

14

Pituitary Gland Locatoin

-base of brain

15

Pituitary gland controls:

-many functions of other endocrine glands

16

Pituitary Gland Parts

-Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
-neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)

17

Adenohypophysis

-produces and secretes 6 hormones in response to commands from hypothalamus

18

Neurohypophysis

-releases ADH and oxytocin

19

Types of Pituitary Gland Hormones (ant)

-Trophic (stimulate other endocrine)
-Effector (Hormones acting on certain body tissues)

20

Trophic Hormones (ant pit gland to other glands)

-(FLAT)
-FSH
-LH
-ACTH
-TSH

21

Hormones that go to specific tissues (ant pit)

-(PEG)
-prolactin
-endorphines
-growth hormones

22

TSH

-thyroid stimulating hormone
-stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thryroid hormones

23

ACTH

-adrenocorticotropic hormone
-produces steroids

24

FSH

-follicle stimulating hormone
-regulates various sexual characteristics

25

LH

-Luteinizing hormone
-regulate various sexual characteristics

26

PRL

-Prolactin
-stimulates breast milk production

27

GH

-Growth Hormone
-stimulates protein synthesis & cell division in cartilage/bone

(somatotropin, human growth hormone)

28

Hormones of Neurohypophysis

-Antidiuretic Hormones
-oxytocin

29

ADH

-antidiuretic hormones
-controls concentration of body fluids

30

Oxytocin

-stimulates contraction of uterus
-milk letdown reflex in lactating females

31

Pineal body location

-below corpus callosum

32

Pineal Body produces

-melatonin
-to regulate sleep cycles

33

Melatonin

-to regulate sleep cycles

34

Location of thyroid/parathyroid gland

-front of neck, below larynx

35

Thyroid gland plays important role in:

-metabolism

36

Thyroid and parathyroid glands play role in:

-regulating calcium balance

37

Thyroid Gland Hormones

-thryroxine (T4)
-Triiodothyronine (T3)
-Calcitonin

38

Thyroid follicles

-produce thyroid hormone (T3 & T4)

39

Thyroid Hormone Impacts:

-body growth
-metabolic rates
-development of bones/skeletal muscle
-sensitivity of cardiovascular system to sympathetic activity (mntn normal HR)

40

Parafollicular cells

-between thyroid gland follicles
-produce calcitonin

41

Calcitonin

-lowers blood calcium

42

Parathyroid Gland Hormones

-PTH (parathyroid hormones)

43

Parathyroid Hormone

-increases blood calcium
-stimulates bone calcium release into blood

44

Thymus location

-in the upper part of chest & produces T-lymphocytes (WBC)

-thymosine (hormone)

45

Adrenal Gland location

-on top of kidneys

46

Adrenal Gland Parts

-adrenal cortex (outer)
-adrenal medulla (inner)

47

Adrenal Cortex Releases

-Corticosteroids
-gluticocorticoids [cortisol]
-mineralocorticoids [aldosterone]
-gonadocorticoids [estrogen, testosterone, progesterone]

48

at 80-90% of VO2 max, you start releasing:

-cortisol

49

Glucocorticoids (cortisol)

-raise blood sugar levels by increasing gluconeogenesis
-ensures glucose supply for when body is in stress

50

Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

-promote sodium reabsorption & potassium excretion by stimulating the kidneys

51

Gonadocorticoids

-estrogen, testosterone, progesterone

52

Adrenal Medulla

-develops from nervous tissue
-controlled by autonomic NS (sympathetic NS)

53

Adrenal Medulla Secretes;

-epinephrine (adrenaline
-norepinephrine (noradrenalin)

54

Epinephrine/Norepinephrine

-chemicals from adrenal medulla that raise levels of blood sugar and fatty acids

55

Pancreas plays a role in ___ & ____

-digestion
-hormone production

56

Exocrine function of pancreas

-digestion

57

Endocrine function of pancreas

-insulin production
-glucose metabolism

58

Adipose Tissue secretes:

-hormones responsible for metabolism, hunger, vasoconstriction & cellular growth/development

59

Adipose Tissue Hormones

-adiponectin
-leptin