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Flashcards in Metabolic System Deck (37):
1

Metabolic System

-physical and chemical process transforming food into energy and elements for cellular rebuilding

2

Phases of Metabolism

-anabolic
-catabolic

3

Metabolic system helps with maintaining

-fluid and electrolyte balance
-(and homeostasis)
--osmotic pressure
--acid-base balance
--Anion-cation balance

4

Metabolic Disorders

-any problem in body that causes loss of metabolic control of the body's steady state
-most are inherited (autosomal recessive)

5

Ex. Metabolic Disorders

-Paget's Disease
-Phenylketonuria (PKU)
-Metabolic Syndrome
-Obesity

6

Paget's Disease

-bone cells increase in number, become larger and more active
-Osteoblast defect
-Bone turnover incr up to 40x and new bone is abnormal in shape/structure/weaker

7

Paget's Disease S/Sx

-headache
-deep boring constant pain
-CN VIII can be involved
-hearing loss

8

Paget's Disease Tx

-PT (incr mm strength, pn control, low/no impact WB)
-pharmacological (bisphosphonates)
-Pain management (analgesics)
-surgery

9

PKU

-Phenylketonuria
-genetic disease
-phenylalanine builds up in circulation-->brain damage

10

genetic component of PKU

-caused by mutations in the gene coding for phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme
-phenylalanine builds up in blood

11

Newborn infants routinely screened for ______

-PKU

-tested by blood tests

12

PKU S/Sx

-mousy odor

13

Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis

3 of 5 of below:

-central obesity
-HTN
-High Triglycerides
-low HDL
-Insulin resistance

14

Metabolic Syndrome Management

-decr sodium intake
-diet
-exercise
-control HTN
-weight loss

15

Waist-to-Hip Ratio

-waist circumference index to determine risk for metabolic syndrome

Male: >102 cm (ratio >0.8 = central obesity)
-Female: >88 cm (ratio >1.0 = central obesity)

16

____ causes increase risk for DM 2, Stroke, CAD

Metabolic Syndrome

17

Obesity

-weight greater than 20% of ideal weight for body structure and height
-BMI >30

18

Obesity Pathogenesis

-neuroendocrine dysfunction cauesd by impairment of CNS function (genetic mutations/deletions) that disrupts normal food intake and body-weight control

19

Ideal BMI

20-24.9

20

Overweight BMI

25-29.9

21

Obesity BMI

30-34.9

22

Moderate Obesity BMI

35-39.9

23

Morbid Obesity BMI

40-49.9

24

Super Obesity BMI

50+

25

2nd Most common preventable cause of death in the US

-inactivity + eating the wrong foods

(smoking #1)

26

Obese individuals have fewer :

-ATPase pumps
-use less energy & expend fewer callories

27

Theories of Obesity Causes

-fewer ATPase pumps
-Adipose cell theory (higher # of fat cells)
-some have more lipoprotein, lipase (assists fat depositions into fat cells
-Microbial Theory
-Viral Infection theory
-Hormonal Dysfunctions
-environmental

28

Microbial Theory

Flora in GI tract causing more things to be digested and utilized differently

29

Viral Infection Theory

virus linked to obesity

30

Hormonal Dysfunction

-HPA (hypothalamus pituitary axis) causing abnormal cortisol secretion causing abnormal metab of sugar

31

Obesity Clinical Manifestations

-excess body fat
-SOB
-atherosclerosis
-HTN
-cardiomyopathy
-increased susceptibility to infection
-fatigue
-irritability
-menstrual disorders/infertility
-psychological disturbances
-irritability
-loneliness
-depression
-binge eating
-tension

32

Risk Factors Associated with Increase Morbidity/Mortality in Obese Persons

-Coronary Artery Disease
-DM 2
-Sleep Apnea
-Osteoarthritis
-Gallstones
-Stress Incontinence
-Cigarette Smoking
-Age >45 (M); >55 (FM)
-postmenopausal women
-HTN
-LDL >160 mg/dL
-HDL

33

Obesity Assessment

-Physical exam
-BMI
-Skin fold measurements

34

Surgical Intervention for Obesity

-vertical banded gastroplasty
-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
-Vagal nerve block

35

Vagal Nerve Block

-indicated for BMI 40+ with HTN, high cholesterol etc.
-reduces hunger and incr feelings of satiety

36

Potential Hazards of Exercise for the Obese Patient

-precipitation of angina or MI
-excessive rise in BP
-Aggravation of degenerative arthritis
-Ligamentous injuries
-Excessive Sweating
-Skin disorders (chafing)
-dehydration/decr blood volume
-heat stroke/exhaustion

37

Pathology Continuum

Metabolic Syndrome-->Obesity-->DM