Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Medical Conditions II > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (72):
1

Macule

-flat, circumscribed area that is a change in the color of skin
-less than 1 cm diameter
--ex. freckles, mole, measles

2

Patch

-flat, nonpalpable irregular-shaped macule
-larger than 1 cm diameter
--ex. port-wine stains, cafe au lait spots

3

Papule

-elevated, firm circumscribed area
-less than 1 cm

-ex. wart, elevated mole

4

PLaque

-elevated, firm rough lesion with flat top
-greater than 1 cm

5

Wheal

-elevated, irregular-shaped area of cutaneous edema
-solid transient,
-variable diameter

ex. insect bites, allergic reactions

6

Nodule

elevated, firm circumscribed lesion
-deeper in dermis thatn papule
-1-2 cm

-ex. lipoma

7

vesicle

elevated, circumscribed superficial (not into dermis)
-filled with serous fluid
-less than 1 cm

-ex. chicken pox

8

Bulla

-vesicle greater than 1 cm in diameter
-ex. blister

9

Erosion

-loss of part of epidermis
-depressed, moist, glistening
-can follow rupture of vesicle or bulla

10

Pustule

-elevated superficial lesion
-similar to vesicle
-filled with purulent fluid

-ex. acne

11

Cyst

-elevated, circumscribed, encapsulated lesion
-in dermis or subQ
-filled with liquid or semisolid material

ex. sebaceous cyst

12

Scale

-heaped up, karatinized cells
-flaky skin, irregular
-thick/thin, dry/oily, variation in size

-(ex. eczema)

13

Lichenification

-rough, thickened epidermis
-secondary to persistent rubbing, itching or skin irritation
-involves flexor surface of extremity

-Ex. chronic dermatitis

14

Plaque

patch of raised cells (scale)
-usually silvery in appearance
-ex. psoriasis

15

Telangiectasia

Fine, irregular red lines produced by capillary dilation
-ex. rosacea, spider veins

16

Excoriation

-loss of epidermis
-linear, hollowed-out
-crusted area

-ex. abrasion/scratch

17

Fissure

-linear crack/break from epidermis to dermis
-moist or dry
-ex. athlete's foot

18

Scar

-thin/thick fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin following injury or laceration to dermis

19

Keloid

-irregular-shaped, elevated, progressively enlarging scar
-grows beyond boundries of wound
-cause by excessive collagen formation

20

Tumor

-elevated, solid lesion
-may be clearly demarcated
-deeper in dermis
-greater than 2 cm

21

Types of Skin Cancer

-basal cell carcinoma (doesn't go deeper or metastasize, spread wider)
-squamous cell carcinoma (spreads deeper)
-malignant melanoma (spreads)
kaposi sarcoma

22

Prognosis of melanoma based on:

-depth of lesion
- >0.76 mm=prognosis is worse

23

Benign Characteristics

-<6 mm
-uniform color
-distinct borders
-symmetric
-seldom bleed/ulcerate
-soft to firm consistency
-slow rate of growth/change

24

Malignant Characteristics

->6mm
-multiple shades, varied pigmentation
-irregular, blurred borders
-asymmetric
-often bleed/ulcerate
-firm to hard consistency
-slow/rapid growth or change

25

Basal Cell Carcinoma

-contained in epidermis
-does not invade blood or lymph vessels
-grows out not deeper
-face, head, ears, neck, back of hands

26

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

-precursed by actinic keratosis
-can present as flat red area, indurated plaque/nodule
-can metastasize
-face, head, ears, neck, back of hands

27

ABCDE

-Asymmetrical
-Borders irregularly, poorly circumscribed
-Color variation, black/blue/multiple
-Diameter >6mm
-Evolving/Elevation, changing

28

Risk Factors skin cancer (HARMM)

-History of skin cancer
-Age >50
-Regular dermatologist absent
-Mole changing
-Male gender

29

Pruritis

-itching
-local/general
-primary skin condition or systemic condition

30

Mechanisms of Pruritis
(5)

1-histamine release
2-wheal formation
3-activation of nerve fibers
4-activation of lymphocytes
5-pain

31

Management

-antihistamines
-tranquilizers
-skin emollients
-increasing environmental humidity
-topical steroids

32

Eczema/dermatitis

-inflammatory disorder of skin caused by endog/exogenous agents
-erythema, vesicles, scales and pruritis

33

Atopic Dermatitis

-most common eczma
-chronic skin disorder with scaly itching rashes
-have family history of allergic conditions like asthma/hay fever

34

Eczema Most common in:

-infants
-usually clear by age 36

35

Sx of Atopic Dermatitis

-skin redness, inflammation around blisters
-rash
-kids under 2: cheeks, elbows, knees
-more/less pigment than other skin
-inner elbows, behind knees common
-spread to neck, hands, feet, eyelids, behind knees
-raw areas, ear discharge, bleeding

36

Atopic Dermatitis Intervention

-avoid agg factors
-topical anti inflammatory meds
-lubrication
-antibiotics for infections
-cold compress for acute irritation
-wet dressings
-

37

Eczema Prognosis/Complications

-chronic, avoid irritants
-not contagious
-2* bacterial infections of skin
-permanent scar formation

38

Papulosquamous disorders

-characterized papules, scales, plaques, erythema
-psoriasis, acne vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosis
-pityriasis rosea, lichen planus, acne rosacea, lupus erythematosus

39

Psoriasis

-chronic, relapsing, proliferative skin disorder of unknown cause
-agg by mechanical injury, chemical injury, virus infections, prescription drug use, psych stress, drinking, smoking, pregnancy, emotional stress
-flare-ups in winter with lack of sunlight

40

Psoriasis Pathophys

-skin turnover decreased from 26-30 days to 3-4 days
-increased T cell lymphocytes
-may be autoimmune disorder

41

Psoriasis Common on:

-scalp, chest, nails, elbows, knees, groin, skin folds, lower back, buttocks

42

Psoriasis Msk Complaints

-itching
-may develop into psoriatic arthritis

43

Psoriatic Arthritis Locations

-fingers, toes, SIJ

44

Post-Rest Gel

-stiffness in mornings
-time it takes to feel good in morning
-RA 2-3 hours
-Psoriatic Arthritis 30 min-2 hours

45

Psoriasis Treatment

-topical preps
-UV light (sunlight)
-Anti-metabolic meds (slow cell proliferation)
-immunosuppressants
-most are progressive

46

Lupus Erythematosus Hallmark Sign

butterfly rash
(malar rash)

47

SSc

-Systemic Sclerosis
-chronic disease that results in differing degrees of skin thickening

48

Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis

-inflammatory myopathy from autoimmune reaction causing muscle breakdown
-inflam and deterioration of muscle & skin

49

DM/PM

Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis

50

DM/PM S/Sx

-joint swelling
-raynaud's phenomenon
-abnormal cardiopulm exam
-weakness in Mm
-skin reddening
-heliotrope rash
-high CPK levels
-gottron's sign

51

Heliotrope rash

-red discoloration of eyelids in dermatomyositis, usually associated with periorbital edema

52

Elevated CPK due to

-muscle break down
-can cause kidney failure

53

DM/PM Diagnostic tests

-CPK levels
-electromyogram
-myscle biopsy
-positive ANA titer

54

Gottron's Sign

-pink patches/papules on knuckles
-in dermatomyositis

55

DM/PM Management

-immunosuppressants
-immunolomodulating agents
-bed rest
-positioning
-diet
-prevent contractures
-avoid sun

56

Calcinosis

-deposition of calcium deposits in soft tissue
-in DM/PM
-Treatment: surgery, calcium channel blockers

57

Vesiculobullous Disorders

characterized by blister or vesicle formation
-(pemphigus, erythema multiform, infections)

58

Pemphigus

-Autoimmune blistering disease

59

erythema multiform

-reaction to drugs or microorganism leading to inflammation of skin and mucous membranes

60

Infections causing Vesiculobullous Disorders

-folliculitis
-cellulitis
-impetigo

61

Folliculitis

-bacterial infection of hair follicle

62

Cellulitis

-infection of dermis and subq tissue
-usually bacterial
-thin water exudate spreads thru interstitial spaces
-treat with antibiotics

63

Impetigo

-superficial lesion caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus
-most common bacterial skin infection in infants and young children
-erythematous vesicles, straw colored fluid, honey crust

64

Viral Infections

-herpes simplex

65

Wart

-benign lesion by virus
-named by location and appearance
-TYPES: plantar warts, flat warts, filiform, digital warts, mosaic, genital

66

Wart: S/Sx

-small, hard, flat, raised skin lesion/bump
-lighter/darker than other skin

67

wart treatment

-go away spontaneously w/n 2 years
-freeze/cut off

68

Fungal infections

-tinea (based on location)
-candidiasis (yeast like infection

69

Tinea Corporis

-ring worm
-transmission thru contact

70

Tinea Pedis

-athlete's foot
-erythema, skin peeling, pruritis
-strong odor
-point of entry for bacterai

71

Signs and Symptoms of Skin Disorders

-pruritis
-urticaria
-rash
-blisters
-xeroderma (dry skin)
-unusual spots, moles, nodules, cysts
-edema/swelling
-change in appearance of nails
-changes in pigmentation, turgor, texture

72

Skin with aging

1. vascular changes (thermoregulation/wound healing)
2. loss of collagen (skin integrity)
3. decreased wound healing