Diseases of the blood, disease of the heart and blood vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the blood, disease of the heart and blood vessels Deck (103):
1

Produced in red bone marrow, some in lymphoid tissue.
- 5,000-9,000 cells/microliter of blood
-Function- inflammation, immunity

Leucocytes (White blood cells, WBC)

2

Produced in red bone marrow.
-4,000,000- 5,000,000 cells/ microliter of blood
-Function- carry oxygen to cells and tissues, and carbon dioxide out of tissues.

Erythrocytes (Red blood cells, RBC)

3

Produced in red bone marrow
-150,000-450,000 cells/microliter of blood
-Function- blood clotting

Thrombocytes (platelets)

4

Increase in the number of WBC in blood.
-Usually occurs to fight infection.
-May be physiological (protective, transient, more common) or pathological
- more than 9,000 cells/ microliter, up to 50,000
-The more severe the infection, the higher the number.
-50,000 - 800,000 cells/microliter > indicate cancer of WBC producing tissue (leukemia)

Leucocytosis (Leukocytosis)

5

Abnormal reduction in the number of WBC in blood.
-Usually due to damage to bone marrow or lymphatic tissue
-results in anemia, infections, bleeding, bruising.

Leucopenia (leukopenia)

6

-Radiation
-Chemical poisons
-Some infections

Etiology of Leucopenia

7

Leucocytosis
Leucopenia

Reactive changes

8

A decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or both resulting in decreased ability to carry oxygen to the body tissues.

Anemia

9

Chronic, hematologic disease that is a result of a love level of RBC or hemoglobin.

Primary anemia

10

Concerned with blood or blood-forming structures.

Hematologic

11

Develops as a complication of another disease, nonhematologic disease.
-persisting longer than 2-6 months
-May provide a diagnostic clue to a chronic disease, e.g., chronic osteomyelitis

Secondary anemia

12

-Increased destruction anemia
-Decreased production anemia

Two types of anemia

13

RBCs are being destroyed.

Increased destruction anemia

14

Producing less RBCs than normal.

Decreased production anemia

15

-Hemorrhage
-Injury or trauma
-Genetic
-Infections

Etiology of increased destruction anemia

16

Sickle cell anemia (primary)
Erythroblastosis fetalis (primary)
Hypersplenism (secondary)

Types of increased destruction anemia

17

Genetic mutation resulting in hemoglobin S
-cells of weird shape, form clots > spleen traps and destroys these cells.
-Results in tachycardia, fatigue, dyspnea

Sickle cell anemia (primary)

18

Hemolytic disease of the newborn. The mother and baby have different Rh blood types.
-baby's RBCs are immature and larger than normal (with nucleus) > may form blood clots > trapped in spleen and destroyed.

Erythroblastosis fetalis (primary)

19

Overactive spleen due to mononucleosis or liver cancer.
- may cause splenomegaly (spleen enlargement).

Hypersplenism (secondary)

20

Underactive bone marrow due to:
-radiation
-chemical poisons
-infection
-metabolic disorders
-leukemia or bone cancer (osteosarcoma)

Etiology of decreased production anemia

21

Aplastic anemia
Pernicious anemia
Megaloblastic anemia

Types of decreased production anemia

22

Damage to bone marrow of unknown origin (idiopathic).
-bone marrow does not produce enough, or any, blood cells, especially RBC.

Aplastic anemia

23

Vitamin B12 deficiency
-due to lack of intrinsic factor produced in the stomach
-common in women following childbirth or malnutrition disorder.

Pernicious anemia

24

Deficiency of B12 and folic acid.
-megablasts
-associated with pernicious anemia.

Megaloblastic anemia

25

Large RBCs

Megablasts

26

Associated with formation of blood and blood components.

Hematopoietic (hemopoietic) disorders

27

"White blood", cancer of WBC producing structures/organs (bone marrow, lymphatic tissue, or spleen).
-results in overproduction of immature WBC
-WBC count elevated 10-100 times.

Leukemia

28

Acute
Chronic

Types of leukemia

29

More common in children
-Acute myelocytic leukemia
-Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
*in children (age 3-6)
*cause severe anemia, pneumonia, infections

Acute Leukemia

30

More common in adults.
-Chronic myeloid leukemia
-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic Leukemia

31

primary- Bone marrow makes too many RBCs (erythrocytosis) causing thickening of blood > slower blood flow
-Greater risk of forming blood clots

Polycythemia Vera

32

-headache, dizziness, itchiness and redness of skin
-fatigue, shortness of breath
-numbness, tingling, burning or weakness in hands, feet, arms or legs
-enlarged spleen

Symptoms of polycythemia vera

33

Increase in the number of RBC in blood (increased hematocrit)
-rare

Erythrocytosis

34

-Hereditary condition
-Excess blood in transfusion
-Underactive spleen (does not remove and destroy old RBC)
-polycythemia vera

Etiology of erythrocytosis

35

Increased blood volume.

Plethroa

36

-Plethroa
-Higher risk or forming blood clots/thrombi
- extra strain on heart > congestive heart failure > ischemia > cyanosis
-Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), risk of rupture as it gets bigger.

May result from erythrocytosis

37

Decreased number of RBC in blood (decreased hematocrit), may result in anemia.

Erythrocytopenia

38

Leukemia
Polycythemia vera
Erythrocytosis
Erythrocytopenia

Type of hematopoietic disorders

39

Severe decrease in the number of platelets.
-less than 60,000 platelets/microliter of blood.
-Due to damaged bone marrow, e.g., radiation, chemicals, cancer (leukemia)
-Results in decreased ability to clot or coagulate blood.
*Bruise and bleed easily > results in hemorrhage, circulatory shock.
*Bruising > purple discoloration on the skin > immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

Thrombocytopenia

40

Blue color on lips and fingers due to lack of oxygen.

Cyanosis

41

-Immune system destroys its own platelets.
-Spontaneous bleeding in subcutaneous tissues > purple patches on the skin.

e.g., acute pediatric viral illness

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

42

X-linked (more common in males) or somatic inherited hemorrhagic disease.
- abnormal or absent clotting factor > inability to clot blood.

symptoms:
-Excessive, prolonged, sometimes spontaneous bleeding
-Frequent epistaxis (nosebleeds), bruising
-Severe cases > hemarthrosis (bleeding into joints) > painful > may cause joint deformity.

Hemophilia

43

Thrombocytopenia
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Hemophilia

Bleeding disorders

44

-Hereditary
-Obesity
- Diabetes mellitus
- Elevated cholesterol levels
- Social factors: smoking; substance abuse, stress or diet

Predisposing conditions for heart and blood vessel disease

45

The condition of the heart being enlarged, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of disease; tends to be chronic.
-Enlarged heart> cannot pump efficiently (abnormal rate) > heart gets bigger> cardiac muscle (myocardial) fibers (cells) stretch and get thinner.
-excess blood left in ventricle > may affect aortic valve

Cardiac dilation (dilation)

46

Blockage of the thoracic aorta due to arteriosclerosis or plaque > aorta narrows > blood back to heart > heart muscles stretch in response.

Cause of cardiac dilation

47

The enlargement of the heart ventricles due to the increase in size of the myocardial cells.
-heart pumps faster > thickening of cardiac muscle cells to allow heart to pump faster (compensatory mechanism) > may lead to hypertensive heart disease.

Cardiac hypertrophy

48

May be from adaptive response to increased cardiac workload such as athletic training or blockage of aorta.

Cause of cardiac hypertrophy

49

Due to uncontrolled high blood pressure.
-pathological effects on the heart, blood vessels and the body in general including the brain and kidneys.
-heart pumps at pressure greater than normal

Hypertensive heart disease

50

120/80 mmHg

Normal blood pressure

51

-90% of all cases, no single cause
-can last for decades, 10-40 years
- predisposing factors - stress, diet (fats, salts), nicotine, obesity, hereditary, arteriosclerosis

Primary (essential) hypertension

52

Mild, does not threaten health or life- blood pressure 140/90 mmHg.

Benign hypertension

53

Blood pressure 160/110+; difficult to lower, even with medications.
-death is usually due to stroke (rupture of blood vessel in the brain), kidney or heart failure.

Malignant hypertension

54

-10% of all cases, has a definite cause
-acute and life threatening
-BP- 220/110 mmHg

-If the heart weakens over time > congestive heart failure

Secondary hypertension

55

-Kidney disease
-Adrenal gland disease, too much adrenaline
-Chemical imbalance: meds, narcotics

Etiology of secondary hypertension

56

Inflammation of the membrane covering the heart and beginning of the great vessels (pericardium).
-main cause: respiratory viruses and bacteria (lungs and bronchi); or trauma.
-scar tissue forms > resulting in pressure on the heart> heart beats more rapidly > weakened heart action > may lead to heart failure.

Pericarditis

57

Inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart (myocardium); usually wall of the left ventricle.
- caused by bacterial or viral infections such as respiratory infections (strep, flu, staph, or pneumonia)
- scar tissue in heart muscle > interfere with blood flow through coronary arteries > may result in chest pain or dizziness.

Myocarditis

58

Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart (endocardium); may involve only the membrane covering the valves or the general lining of the chambers of the heart.

-Most often the mitral (bicuspid valve); infected valve results in inflammation> exudate> scar tissue (vegetations) and ulcers form on the valve > makes valve rigid > chunks of scar tissue can break off and become emboli

Endocarditis

59

Bacteria (#1 Streptococcus) and viruses in blood; most often respiratory infections (flu, cold, sore throat).

Cause of Endocarditis

60

Related to the heart valves.

Valvular defects

61

Failure of a heart valve to close completely, thus allowing regurgitation (leaking back) of blood.

Valvular insufficiency (incompetence)

62

Abnormally enlarged and floppy valve.
e.g., Mitral valve prolapse

Valvular prolapse

63

Abnormal narrowing of a valve that restricts flow of blood.

Valvular stenosis

64

Autoimmune reaction.

Rheumatic

65

Condition of permanent damage to heart valves.
-usually follows strep throat infection.

-Immune system produces antibodies to fight streptococcus bacteria > antibodies attach to tissues of heart (and joints causing arthritis) > phagocytize the heart by mistake (myocarditis) > scar tissue forms > weaken the valve > valve will leak and regurgitate blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium > heat murmurs

Rheumatic Fever

66

Blockage in coronary artery depriving the heart muscle of oxygen.
-#1 cause for sudden death
- May result in ischemia and myocardial infarction
*most often in left ventricle > chest pain, dizziness > may require by-pass surgery.

Coronary artery disease

67

-Atherosclerosis > arteriosclerosis
-Thrombus (thrombosis)
-Embolus (embolism)
-spasms

Etiology of coronary artery disease

68

Inability of the heart to supply adequate blood flow (oxygen and nutrients) to peripheral tissues and organs.

Cardiac failure

69

Rapid, may result from:
-cardiopulmonary by-pass surgery
-acute myocardial infarction
-valve dysfunction
-severe arrhythmias

Acute cardiac failure

70

Congestive heart failure

Chronic cardiac failure

71

General weakening of the heart over time, leading to heart failure.
-heart cannot pump enough blood to supply organs

-Heart cannot clear blood > blood pooling in the heart > the heart drown's in it's own blood > results in severe chest pain.

Congestive heart failure

72

Due to disorder of the left ventricle; leads to anasarca (hands, feet, abdomen)

Right-sided cardiac failure

73

Due to hypertension, mitral or aortic valve disease, coronary artery or myocardial disease.

Left-sided cardiac failure

74

Usually results in damage to the myocardium.
- Area of necrotic tissue in the heart caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area

e.g., due to coronary thrombosis

Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)

75

Disease or disorder of the heart muscle (myocardium)

-caused by viral infections, heart attack, alcoholism, long-term severe high blood pressure or other unknown causes.

- can be severely disabling or fatal

Cardiomyopathy

76

Inflammation of the entire heart and its surrounding structures.

Carditis (pancardidis)

77

Caused by failure to develop normal heart.

e.g., due to infections in utero (rubella, syphilis, HIV)

Congenital heart defects

78

The apex of the heart is situated on the right side of the body; heart can be smaller.

Dextrocardia

79

Rearrangement of valves or abnormal valve structure.

Valvular defect

80

Hole in the septum (wall between the right and left side of the heart).

Septal defect

81

Four related heart defects:
1. Interventricular septal defect
2. Aorta shifts to the right
3. Pulmonary stenosis
4. Right ventricle hypertrophy

-results in less oxygenated blood to the body
-occurs in 1-300 births

Tetralogy of fallout

82

Hole between the ventricles.

Interventricular septal defect

83

The aorta normally arises from the left ventricle, this results in narrowing of the aorta.

Aorta shifts to the right

84

Narrowing of the pulmonary artery.

Pulmonary stenosis

85

Results in compensation of the first three abnormalities of the tetralogy of fallout.

Right ventricle hypertrophy

86

Aorta and the pulmonary artery are connected to each other.

Patent ductus arteriosus

87

Constricted segment of the aorta, usually above the heart.

Coarctation of the aorta

88

Inflammation of medium and large arteries.
-Endoarteritis
-Periarteritis

-Results in scar tissue, blockage, hemorrhage.
- sometimes defined by it's cause.

Arteritis

89

Inflammation of the lumen or inner wall of an artery.
-Caused by blood clots, arteriosclerosis, or emboli

Endoarteritis

90

Inflammation of the outer wall of an artery.
-caused by external trauma

Periarteritis

91

Hardening

Sclerosis

92

Disease of the arteries resulting in thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial wall.

- results in impaired blood circulation

Arteriosclerosis

93

-Develops with aging
-most often caused by atherosclerosis
-hypertension or diabetes mellitus > fat plaques > collect on blood vessel wall > irritate wall > arteritis > calcium deposits > scar tissue

Etiology of arteriocslerosis

94

A form of arteriosclerosis marked by the deposition of lipids in the inner layer of arterial walls.

- Characterized by deposit of cholesterol plaques, fatty substances, or cellular debris on inner walls of arteries. e.g., aorta.

- can restrict blood flow

Atherosclerosis

95

Local dilation of the wall of blood vessels, primarily arteries.

-Can rupture (bursting). resulting in hemorrhage in the brain or abdomen.

Aneurysm

96

-Internal blockage due to clot, embolus, arteriosclerosis, plaque.
- external pressure due to tumor
-location determines the shape

Etiology of aneurysms

97

Resembles a small sack; artery, vein, or heart.

Saccular aneurysm

98

Resembles a swollen tube.

Fusiform/Spindle aneurysm

99

Blood flows between layers of vessel wall, most dangerous, likely to rupture because of pressure in the center of it.

Dissecting aneurysm

100

Inflammation of a vein.

Etiology : blockage of a vein, external pressure due to obesity, pregnancy, pressure, weakened heart action.

Results in : local pain (pressure on nerves), veins hold blood (pool with blood), inflammation restricts blood flow, vein blue and stretched > varicose vein.

Phlebitis

101

Enlarged (dilated) tortuous blood vessel.

- more likely to affect ascending veins

Varicose vein

102

Superficial veins of :
- rectal lining (called external and internal hemorrhoids = piles)
-scrotum
-legs

Chief locations of varicose veins

103

It is important to carefully monitor injection pressures and the rate of flow of arterial embalming fluid due to:

-damaged vascular vessels
-blood vessels predisposed to fragility and rupture

Postmortem conditions