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Flashcards in DIT cards Deck (131):
1

bacteria w/ capsules

E.Coli (some strains)
Strep pneumo**
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Neisseria meningitidis**
Klebsiella pneumoniae
H.influenzae type B**
Salmonella typhi
Group B Strep

"Even Some Pretty Nasty Killers Have Shiny Bodies"

2

which YEAST has a capsule?

cryptococcus neoformans

3

amphetamine OD tx?

ammonium chloride (bc amph = weak BASES)

4

salicylate (aspirin) OD tx?

sodium bicarb or dialysis (bc salicylate = weak ACID)

5

testicular tumor w/ Schiller-Duval bodies?

yolk-sac tumor

6

testicular tumor w/ rod-shaped crystalloids of Reinke?

Leydig cell tumor

7

organism commonly implicated in balanitis?

Candida albicans

8

endotoxin impt features?

is a LPS; esp. lipid A contrib to this

Edema
NO
DIC/Death
Outer membrane (where it is found in Gram neg bacteria)
TNF-alpha
O-antigen
eXtremely heat stable
IL-1
Neutrophil chemotaxis

9

catalase

breaks down H2O2 into water and oxygen

10

coagulase

induce coagulation;
allows bacterial binding to fibrin/fibrinogen increasing binding to host tissue + decreasing phagocytosis

11

impt virulence factor of S.aureus

Protein A - binds Fc-IgG (inhib opsonization/phagocytosis)

12

neonatal sepsis causes

GBS
E.Coli
Listeria

13

virulence factors ass w/ Strep pneumo

capsule**
IgA protease

14

"rust-colored" sputum

S.pneumo

15

S.epidermidis produces infections on __________ by producing ________

prosthetic devices/IV catheters;
adherent biofilms

16

which strep are penicillin G resistant

E.faecalis, E.faecium (group D strep)

17

strep agalactiae causes?

pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis in NEWBORNS

normal colonizer of vagina

18

mycoplasma contain

sterols

19

bugs that don't gram stain well:

Treponema
Rickettsiae
Mycobateria
Mycoplasma
Legionella pneumophila
Chlamydia

"These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color"

20

treponema best seen in

dark field microscopy

21

Bell's palsy complication seen in?

Lyme dz
Herpes Zoster
AIDS
Sarcoidosis
Tumors
Diabetes

"my Lovely BELLE Had An STD"

22

fetal placental structure that secretes hCG?

synciotrophoblast

23

maternal component of placenta?

decidua basalis

24

when you see a neural tube defect, think?

"folate deficiency" = most common cause

or carbamazepine/valproic acid

25

mut in HOXD-13

synpolydactyly (extra fused digit b/w 3rd-4th fingers)

26

common cause of congenital malformations in US?

alcohol use in preg

27

common cause of intellectual disability in US?

FAS

28

G1 --> S uses what 2 cyclin/CDK complexes?

CDK4 + cyclin D (phosphorylation of RB --> release from TF E2F --> synth of components for progression thru S phase)
CDK2 + cyclin E (progress into S phase)

29

G2 --> M uses what 2 cyclin/CDK complexes?

CDK2 + cyclin A (mitotic prophase)
CDK1 + cyclin B (activated by cdc25; nuclear lamin breakdown + initiation of mitosis)

30

3 AAs that can be modified by Golgi?

serine
threonine
asparagine

31

proteins going to LYSOSOMES are tagged w/?

mannose-6-phosphate

32

3 AA found in nuclear localization signals?

lysine
arginine
proline

33

filaments listed from THINNEST to THICKEST?

microfilaments
intermediate filaments
myosin
microtubules

34

role of vit C in collagen synth?

hydroxylation of proline, lysine

35

hereditary nephritis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss

Alport synd

36

problems forming triple helix in collagen?

osteogenesis imperfecta

37

problems w/ __________ cross-linking causes _____?

covalent lysine-hydroxylysine cross-linkage

Ehlers-Danlos synd

38

blocking of mesocortical pathway?

increase in negative sympt of schizophrenia (social withdrawal, depression)

39

blocking of mesolimbic pathway?

decrease in positive sympt of schizophrenia (target of neuroleptic drugs)

40

blocking of nigrostriatal pathway?

Parkinson dz (stimulation of this pathway --> EPS)

normally coordinates voluntary movements (dopamine inhibits ACh release)

41

blocking of tuberoinfundibular pathway?

hyperprolactinemia --> hypogonadism (amenorrhea, decreased libido, gynecomastia in men, galactorrhea in men)

42

heart sounds considered benign when no evidence of disease?

S3 in pts <40 y.o
split S1
split S2 on inspiration
early, quiet systolic murmur

43

AA found most in collagen

glycine

44

mycobacterium that causes leprosy

M.leprae

45

mycobacterium that causes pulmonary TB-like sympt in COPD pts

M.kansasii

46

mycobacterium that causes cervical lymphadenitis in children

M.scrofulaceum

47

mycobacterium that causes a disseminated dz in AIDS pts

M.avium-intracellulare (aka MAC)

48

mycobacterium that causes hand infection in aquarium

M.marinum

49

CD marker on NK cells + binds constant region of IgG

CD16

50

CD marker that inhibits complement C9 binding

CD55 + CD59

51

CD marker ass w/ endotoxin receptor found on macrophages

CD14

52

pulmonary vasculature response to hypoxia

vasoconstriction! (so only well-ventilated areas perfused)

53

carotid sinus baroreceptors sense? use what nerve?

increased and decreased BP
use CN IX (glossopharyngeal)

54

aortic baroreceptors sense? use what nerve?

ONLY increased BP
use CN X (vagus)

55

bug ass w/ hyponatremia?

Legionella

56

cardio drugs okay to use in pregnancy?

Hydralazine
Methyldopa
Labetalol
Nifedipine

"Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine"

57

triad in Kartagener synd

recurrent sinusitis
bronchiectasis
situs inversus

58

penicillin drug given to tx syphilis?

penicillin G

59

penicillin drug given to tx UTI?

amoxicillin

60

penicillin drug given to tx Pseudomonas?

ticarcillin
carbenicillin
piperacillin

61

penicillin drug given to tx neonatal infection?

ampicillin (IV) + gentamicin

62

Meniere's dz triad

vertigo
hearing loss
tinnitus

63

common causes of transudative pleural effusion

CHF - increase hydrostatic pressure
cirrhosis - decrease protein
nephrotic synd - decrease protein
Pulm embolism
fluid overload - increase hydrostatic pressure
LV infarction

64

common causes of exudative pleural effusion

pneumonia
infection
cancer
TB
connective tissue disease
uremia

increased protein and membrane permeability

65

difference b/w presentation of Mallory-Weiss tears vs. esophageal varices?

Mallory-Weiss tears - ass w/ pain

66

CPS I location, pathway, nitrogen source?

mitochondria
Urea cycle
N --> from ammonia

67

CPS II location, pathway, nitrogen source?

cytosol
de novo Pyrimidine synthesis
N --> from glutamine

68

3 uses of amphetamines

ADD
narcolepsy
obesity

69

buzzword for opioid tox

pinpoint pupils

70

buzzword for opioid withdrawal

lacrimation, yawning

71

buzzword for benzo withdrawal

rebound anxiety

72

buzzword for amphetamine or cocaine tox

pupillary dilation (mydriasis)

73

buzzword for PCP tox

vertical/horizontal nystagmus
also, belligerence

74

buzzword for LSD tox

flashbacks

75

buzzword for marijuana tox

red eye (conjunctival injection)

76

psammoma bodies seen in

Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid
Serous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

77

why are aminoglycosides ineffective against anaerobes?

require O2

78

K+ shifts out of cells causing hyperkalemia w/

low insulin
beta-blockers
acidosis
digoxin
cell lysis (leukemia)
hyperosmolarity

79

K+ shifts into cells causing hypokalemia w/

insulin
beta-agonist (increases Na/K ATPase)
alkalosis
cell creation/prolif
hypo-osmolarity

80

6 causes of hypernatremia

diuretics
dehydration
DI
docs (iatrogenic)
diarrhea
disease of kidney

81

2 diuretics causing hyperkalemia

K+ sparing
ACE inhibitors

82

2 diuretics causing hypokalemia

HCTZ
loop diuretics

83

tx for lithium-induced nephrogenic DI

amiloride

84

tx for lithium-induced nephrogenic DI

amiloride

85

primary function of collecting duct principal cells

reabsorb Na + H2O
secrete K

86

primary function of collecting duct intercalated cells

secrete either H+ or HCO3-
reabsorb K

87

2 types of intercalated cells and their functions

alpha-intercalated - secretes H+
beta-intercalated - secretes HCO3-

88

the 2 muscle receptors responsible for opening sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to depolarization

ryanodine recept
dihydropyridine recept

89

nerve most at risk of damage in fibula neck fracture

deep peroneal n.

90

3 D's of pellagra

dermatitis
diarrhea
dementia

91

triad of Conn synd

HTN
hypokalemia
metabolic alkalosis

92

4 erythropoietin secreting tumors

pheochromocytoma
renal cell carcinoma
hemangioblastoma
hepatocellular carcinoma

"Potentially Really High Hematocrit"

93

vaginal pH increased in

trichomonas vaginosis
bacterial vaginosis

94

vaginal pH decreased in

physiologic discharge
Candida

95

painless jaundice in older individual should make you think?

pancreatic cancer (in head of pancreas)

96

port-wine stain seen in ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve seen w/

Sturge Weber

97

currant jelly stool seen w/

intussusception

98

adverse rxn from mixing succinylcholine w/ inhaled anesthetics?

malignant hyperthermia

99

tx for resistant malarias

mefloquine

100

tx for P.vivax or ovale

chloroquine + primaquine

101

tx for most all flukes and tapeworms

praziquantel

102

tx for Chagas disease

benznidazole
nifurtimox

103

tx for cutaneous leshmaniasis

sodium stibogluconate

104

tx for visceral leshmaniasis

liposomal amphotericin B

105

K-ras mut seen w/ what cancers?

colon
lung
pancreatic

106

H-ras mut seen w/ what cancers?

bladder
kidney

107

N-ras mut seen w/ what cancer?

melanomas
hematologic malignancies

108

aflatoxins potentially found in what foods

corn, soybeans, peanuts

109

common cancers ass w/ ionizing radiation

AML
CML
thyroid cancers

110

UV light that most increases risk of skin cancer

UVB (causes pyrimidine dimers in DNA)

111

type of lesion caused by lung cancer metastasis to bone

lytic

112

type of lesion caused by prostate cancer metastasis to bone

blastic

113

type of lesion caused by breast cancer metastasis to bone

lytic AND blastic

114

cancers ass w/ RET gene mutations

MEN 2A + 2B
medullary thyroid cancer
papillary thyroid cancer

115

nephrotoxic/ototoxic drugs

vancomycin
aminoglycosides
loop diuretics
cisplatin/carboplatin

116

drugs tx testicular cancer

etoposide
bleomycin
cisplatin
also, ifosfamide

"Eradicate Ball Cancer, Idiot!"

117

cancer drugs that cause pulmonary fibrosis as SE

busulfan
bleomycin

118

5-FU rescue therapy

thymidine or uridine

119

cancer drugs that can cross BBB

nitrosureas

120

drugs that inhibit microtubules

vincristine
vinblastine
paclitaxel
mebendazole
albendazole
griseofulvin
colchicine

121

diff b/w vincristine/vinblastine

vincristine - SE = neurotox, peripheral neuritis
vinblastine - SE = bone marrow suppression ("vinBLASTine BLASTS bones")

122

nerve/artery @ risk w/ fracture of midshaft of humerus

radial n. + deep brachial artery

123

nerve @ risk w/ fracture of surgical neck of humerus

axillary n.

124

nerve @ risk w/ supracondylar humerus fracture

median n.

125

Ddx for eosinophilia

"DNAAACP"
Drugs
Neoplasms
Atopic dz (allergy, asthma, Churg-Strauss)
Addison dz
Acute interstitial nephritis
Collagen vascular dz
Parasites

126

immuno rxn during anaphylaxis

antigen cross-links IgE on mast cells

127

antihistamine for vertigo

meclizine

128

antihistamine for appetite stim

cyproheptadine (also serotonin OD tx)

129

antihistamine for nausea/vomiting

promethazine

130

what CD marker inhib complement C9 binding?

CD55, CD59

131

what CD marker is found on all NK cells and binds constant region of IgG

CD16