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USMLE Step 1 Random Facts > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (36):
1

MEN 1 (Wermer's synd)

3Ps
Parathyroid tumors
Pituitary tumors (prolactin or GH)
Pancreatic tumors (Zollinger-Ellison synd, insulinomas, VIPomas, glucagonomas [rare])

gene defect on MENIN gene on chrom 11

2

MEN 2A (Sipple's synd)

2Ps
Parathyroid tumors
Pheochromocytoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (secretes calcitonin)

3

MEN 2B

1P
Pheochromocytoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (secretes calcitonin)
Oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (ass w/ marfinoid habitus)

4

MEN2A + 2B have what gene mutation?

ret

5

TRH stimulates?

TSH
prolactin

6

dopamine inhibits?

prolactin

7

CRH stimulates?

ACTH
MSH
beta-endorphins

8

Somatostatin inhibits?

GH
TSH

9

prolactin inhibits?

GnRH

10

triad of glucagonoma

diabetes mellitus
necrolytic erythema
anemia

11

external branch of superior laryngeal n. innervates?

cricothyroid m.

12

ligation of superior thyroid artery during thyroidectomy can ligate what nerve?

external branch of superior laryngeal n.

13

ligation of inferior thyroid artery can damage what nerve?

recurrent laryngeal n.

14

hormones using cAMP

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2 recept)
MSH
PTH
calcitonin
GHRH
glucagon

15

hormones using cGMP

ANP
NO

"vasodilators"

16

hormones using steroid receptors

vit D
estrogen
testosterone
T3/T4
cortisol
aldosterone
progesterone

17

hormones using intrinsic tyrosine kinase

insulin
IGF-1
FGF
PDGF
EGF

MAP kinase pathway

"think growth factors"

18

hormones using receptor-associated tyrosine kinase

prolactin
immunomodulators (ex. cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN)
GH

JAK/STAT pathway

19

hormones that have common alpha-subunit

LH
FSH
TSH
beta-hCG

20

hormone used to reduce splanchnic blood flow + what is it used to tx?

somatostatin
used to tx - bleeding varices (portal HTN), bleeding PUD

21

GH secretion increased w/?

exercise
sleep
hypoglycemia
estrogen
stress
endogenous opioids

22

GH secretion decreased w/?

glucose
somatostatin
GHIH
pregnancy
obesity

23

17alpha-hydroxylase needed for prod of what hormones

cortisol
androgens

24

21-hydroxylase needed for prod of what hormones

aldosterone
cortisol

25

11beta-hydroxylase needed for prod of what hormones

aldosterone (but 11-deoxycorticosterone w/ weak mineralocorticoid activity still prod)
cortisol

26

3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase needed for prod of what hormones

ALL 3 adrenal hormones

27

desmolase needed for prod of what hormones

ALL 3 adrenal hormones bc it converts cholesterol ---> pregnenolone (precursor)

28

pregnenolone acted upon by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase produces what

progesterone

29

GC increase levels of what leukocyte in blood? decrease levels of what?

increase - neutrophils (by decreasing adhesion)
decrease - eosinophils

30

what 2 decreased mineral levels increase PTH secretion

Ca
Mg (but if TOO decreased --> decreases PTH secretion)

31

increased TBG in

preg + OCP use
estrogen increases TBG by decreasing catabolism --> increases TOTAL T4/T3, but FREE thyroid hormone levels are NORMAL

32

decreased TBG in

hepatic failure, low-protein states
TOTAL T4/T3 decreased, but FREE levels are increased!!

33

paraneoplastic synd ass w/ neuroblastoma

opsonus-myoclonus

34

hashimoto's thyroiditis increases risk of

B-cell lymphoma

35

histo in T1DM vs T2DM

T1DM - leukocytic infiltrate
T2DM - islet amyloid (AIAPP) deposit

36

sulfonylureas that can cause disulfiram-like rxn

tolbutamide
chlorpropamide