Immunology Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 Random Facts > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (95):
1

Upper limb, lateral breast lymph drainage (LD)

Axillary

2

stomach LD

celiac

3

duodenum, jejunum LD

superior mesenteric

4

sigmoid colon LD

inferior mesenteric

5

rectum (lower portion) of anal canal (below pectinate line) LD

superficial inguinal

6

testes LD

para-aortic

7

scrotum LD

superficial inguinal

8

thigh (superficial) LD

superficial inguinal

9

lateral side of dorsum of foot LD

popliteal

10

HLA-A3

hemochromatosis

11

HLA-B27

PAIR: psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, Inflammatory Bowel Dz, Reiter's synd

12

HLA-DQ2/DQ8

celiac dz

13

HLA-DR2

Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture's

14

HLA-DR3

type I DM, Grave's dz

15

HLA-DR4

RA, type I DM

16

HLA-DR5

pernicious anemia --> B12 def, Hashimoto's thyroiditis

17

polio (Sabin)

live attenuated vaccine

18

polio (Salk)

inactivated/killed vaccine

19

type II HST rxns in:

AIHA, pernicious anemia, ITP, erythroblastosis fetalis, acute hemolytic transfusion rxns, rheumatic fever, Goodpasture's synd, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris

20

type III HST rxns in:

SLE, polyarteritis nodosa, post-strep glomerulonephritis, serum sickness, arthus rxn (eg. swelling/inflamm after tetanus vaccine), HST pneumonitis

21

type IV HST rxns in:

multiple sclerosis, guillain-barre synd, GVH dz, PPD, contact dermatitis

22

ANA

SLE, nonspecific

23

Anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith

SLE

24

Antihistone

drug-induced lupus

25

rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP

RA

26

Anticentromere

CREST synd

27

Anti-Scl-70 (anti-DNA topoisomerase I)

diffuse scleroderma

28

antimitochondrial

primary biliary cirrhosis

29

IgA antiendomysial, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase

Celiac

30

Anti-basement membrane

Goodpasture's synd

31

anti-desmoglein

pemphigus vulgaris

32

type I HST rxns in:

bee sting/food/drug allergies, rhinitis, hay fever, eczema, hives, asthma

33

antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin

hashimoto's thyroiditis

34

Anti-Jo-1, anti-SRP, anti-Mi-2

polymyositis, dermatomyositis

35

Anti-SSA (anti-Ro), Anti-SSB (anti-La)

Sjogren's synd

36

Anti-U1 RNP

mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD)

37

anti-smooth muscle

autoimmune hepatitis

38

anti-glutamate decarboxylase

type I DM

39

c-ANCA (PR3-ANCA)

granulomatosis w/ polyangiitis (Wegener's)

40

p-ANCA (MPO-ANCA)

microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss synd

41

hyperacute rejection

type II
preformed anti-donor Ab in transplant recipient

42

acute rejection

cell-mediated - CTLs against foreign MHCs
reversible w/ immunosuppressants
vasculitis w/ dense interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate

43

chronic rejection

perceived by CTLs as class I MHC cells presenting a non-self antigen
irreversible
obliterative vascular fibrosis; fibrosis of graft tissue

44

GVH disease

grafted T-cells prolif in immunocompromised host and reject cells w/ "foreign" antigen (severe organ dysfunction)
maculopapular rash, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, diarrhea
usually in bone marrow and liver transplants

45

HLA-B8

Grave's disease

46

glans penis LD

deep inguinal

47

cutaneous portion of posterior calf LD

deep inguinal

48

cytokines secreted by macrophages

IL-1
IL-6
IL-8
IL-12
TNF-alpha

49

cytokines secreted by all T-cells

IL-2
IL-3

50

cytokines secreted by Th1 cells

IFN-gamma

51

cytokines secreted by Th2 cells

IL-4
IL-5
IL-10

52

NK cells activated by what cytokines?

IL-2
IL-12
IFN-beta
IFN-alpha

53

NK cell mostly induced to kill when

absence of MHC I on target cell

54

NK cells secrete what cytokine

IFN-gamma

55

surface markers of NK cells?

CD16 (binds constant region of Ab - Fc; ADCC killing)
CD56 (unique for this!!)

56

activated regulatory T-cells produce what cytokines?

IL-10
TGF-beta

57

T-cell markers?

CD3 (ass w/ TCR for signal transduction)
TCR (bind antigen-MHC complex)
CD28 (binds B7)

58

Helper T-cell unique marker?

CD40 ligand

59

B-cell markers?

IgM, IgD
CD19, CD20
CD21 (receptor for EBV)
CD40

60

unique macrophage markers?

CD14
Fc and C3b receptors (enhanced phagocytosis)

61

two impt opsonins

C3b, IgG

62

classic pathway begins w/ what complement?

C1

63

alternative pathway begins w/?

C3

64

lectin pathway begins w/?

mannose-binding lectin

65

IL-1

causes fever, acute inflamm

66

IL-6

also secreted by Th2 cells
fever + prod of acute phase reactants

67

IL-8

chemotactic for neutrophils

68

IL-12

differentiation of T-cells into Th1 cells
activates NK cells
secreted by B-cells also

69

TNF-alpha

septic shock!
leukocyte recruitment
vascular leakage
signals for apoptosis of tumor cells

70

IL-2

growth of all T-cells
promotes growth of B-cells + activates NK-cells, monocytes
first IL produced by T-cells after contact w/ antigen

71

IL-3

growth/diff of bone marrow stem cells
like GM-CSF

72

IFN-gamma

activates macrophages and Th1 cells
suppresses Th2 cells

73

IL-4

growth of B-cells
diff into Th2 cells
class switch to IgE and IgG

74

IL-5

diff of B-cells
class switch to IgA
growth/diff of eosinophils

75

IL-10

modulate inflamm response
INHIBIT Th1 and macrophages
secreted by regulatory T-cells also
similar actions seen in TGF-beta!!!! (inhib inflamm)

76

acute phase cytokines prod by macrophages

IL-1
IL-6
TNF-alpha

77

cytokines promoting B-cell growth/diff?

IL-4, IL-5
IL-2

78

cytokines promoting inflammation?

IL-1
IL-6
TNF-alpha

79

cytokines released by virus-infected cells

IFN-alpha
IFN-beta

80

C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency causes/CI uses?

hereditary angioedema (increased bradykinin)
ACE inhib CI

81

C3 deficiency causes?

recurrent pyogenic sinus/resp tract infection (S.pneumo, H.influenza especially)
increased suscept to type III HST rxns

82

C5-C9 deficiencies (MAC complex) causes?

recurrent Neisseria bacteremia

83

DAF (CD55) deficiency causes?

complement-med lysis of RBCs
PNH

84

pts suscept to what organisms in chronic granulomatous dz?

catalase +:
S.aureus
E.coli
Klebsiella
Aspergillus
Candida
P.cepacia

85

medullary cords of LN contain?

lymphocytes/plasma cells

86

medullary sinuses contain?

reticular cells/macrophages

87

only APC that can activate a naive T-cell

dendritic cell

88

regulatory T-cell express what markers?

CD3, CD4, CD25 (alpha chain of IL-2 receptor)

89

in the classic pathway what 2 complement factors make up C3 convertase?

C2a + C4b

90

what complement factor is added to make C5 convertase?

C3b

91

MOA of superantigens

cross-link beta region of T-cell receptor to MHC class II on APCs

92

MOA of endotoxins

DIRECTLY stim macrophages by binding receptor on CD14

93

ataxia telangiectasia

triad:
-cerebellar defects
-spider angiomas
-IgA deficiency

see: increased alpha-fetoprotein

94

marker missing in Leukocyte Adhesion deficiency

LFA-1 integrin (CD18)

95

tx for chronic granulomatous disease

IFN-gamma