Flashcards in Pathology Deck (90):
enlarged hypercellular glomeruli
reactive arthritis triad
conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis
"can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree"
mantle cell lymphoma
cyclin D1 activation
M3 type of AML
responsive to all-trans retinoic acid
macroorchidism found mainly in?
Fragile X synd
Fragile X synd
hemangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla
bilat Renal cell carcinoma
deletion of VHL gene (TS) on chrom 3
constitutive expression of HIF (TF) and activation of angiogenic growth factors
what passes through the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI (aka nerves that control EOM + V1, V2)
postganglionic sympathetic fibers
only leukemia w/o lymphadenopathy?
Hairy cell leukemia
coagulative necrosis seen in?
heart, liver, kidney
liquefactive necrosis seen in?
brain, bacterial abscess, pleural effusion
caseous necrosis seen in?
TB, systemic fungal infection
fatty necrosis seen in?
peripancreatic fat (saponification via lipase)
fibrinoid necrosis seen in?
gangrenous necrosis seen in?
dry (ischemic coagulative)
wet (w/ bacteria)
common in limbs + GI tracts
difference b/w apoptosis and necrosis?
inflammation in necrosis only
hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affects?
pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells
hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock signs
low cardiac output
cold, clammy pt (vasoconstriction)
septic shock signs
dilated arterioles, high venous return
hot patient (vasodilation)
free radical pathologies
Carbon tetrachloride --> liver necrosis (fatty change)
Acetaminophen overdose --> fulminant hepatitis
Iron overload --> hemochromatosis
Reperfusion after anoxia esp after thrombolytic therapy
"take good CAIR to avoid ROS damage"
spec gravity <1.012
caused by: increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure, Na retention
spec grav >1.012
due to: lymphocytic obstruction, inflamm
hypertrophic scar collagen?
sickle cell (altered shape)
polycythemia (too many)
benign/malignant tumor of the epithelium
adenoma, papilloma/adenocarcinoma, papillary carcinoma
benign/malignant tumor of blood vessels
benign/malignant tumor of smooth muscle
benign/malignant tumor of striated muscle
benign/malignant tumor of CT
benign/malignant tumor of bone
benign/malignant tumor of fat
malignant tumor of blood cells
things ending in -sarcoma + lymphomas, leukemias are of what origin?
brain metastases mostly from?
lung then breast cancers
50% brain tumors = from metastasis
liver metastasis mostly from?
bone metastasis mostly from?
prostate and breast cancer
tumor predilection for axial skeleton
psammoma bodies seen in?
Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid
Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
Down synd associated cancer?
("we ALL fall DOWN")
xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism associated cancer?
basal cell carcinoma of skin
**squamous cell carcinoma of skin (especially this)
chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants associated cancer?
tuberous sclerosis associated cancer?
Giant cell astrocytoma
actinic keratosis associated cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
barrett esophagus (chronic GI reflux) associated cancer?
plummer-vinson synd (decreased iron) associated cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
cirrhosis associated cancer?
ulcerative colitis associated cancer?
paget's disease of bone associated cancer?
immunodeficiency states associated cancer?
AIDS associated cancer?
aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's)
autoimmune diseases associated cancer?
acanthosis nigracans associated cancer?
visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, uterus)
dysplastic nevus associated cancer?
radiation exposure associated cancer?
papillary thyroid cancer
what is needed for viability in Tricuspid atresia?
both ASD + VSD
tearing chest pain radiating to back; dx?
what are the large vessel vasculitis (involving aorta/major branches)?
temporal (giant cell) arteritis
what are the medium-vessel vasculitis (muscular arteries)?
Buerger's dz (thromboangiitis obliterans)
what are the small-vessel vasculitis (arterioles, capillaries, venules)?
pheochromocytomas associated w/?
MEN 2A, 2B
triad of Wiskott-Aldrich synd
hemolytic uremic synd (HUS)?
acute renal failure
microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
defect in chronic granulomatous dz
lack of NADPH oxidase (absent respiratory burst in neutrophils)
treacher-collins synd ass w/ which branchial arch?
1st arch neural crest fails to migrate
3 impt causes of polyuria and polydipsia
DM, diabetes insipidus, primary (psychogenic) polydipsia
irrev cell injury caused by?
damage to plasma membrane
damage to nucleus
rupture of lysosome
fragile X synd ass w/ what gene mutation?
common feature seen in macrocytic (megaloblastic) anemia?
factor VIII inhibitors ass w/?
treating hemophilia A w/ factor VIII
factor V inhibitor ass w/?
factor XIII inhibitor ass w/?
what antibody produces false positive syphilis (VDRL) test?
carcinoids derived from what cells?
2 lung tumors w/ neurosecretory granules?
lab findings in Down synd
DECREASED AFP, estriol
INCREASED b-hCG, inhibin A
US shows increased nuchal translucency
lab findings in Edwards synd
DECREASED AFP, b-hCG, estriol
normal inhibin A
lab findings in Patau's synd
DON'T USE QUAD SCREEN
DECREASED free b-hCG, PAPP-A
INCREASED nuchal translucency
lab findings in Klinefelter's synd
decreased inhibin A --> increased FSH (bc of dygenesis of seminiferous tubules)
increased LH --> increased estrogen (bc of abnormal Leydig cell function)
lab findings in Turner's synd
decreased estrogen --> increased LH + FSH
**menopause before menarche
negatively birefringent needle-shaped crystals
positively birefringent rhombus-shaped crystals
organs w/ dual blood supply
liver (portal v. and hepatic a.)