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USMLE Step 1 Random Facts > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (90):
1

hexagonal crystals

cystinuria

2

enlarged hypercellular glomeruli

post-strep GN

3

reactive arthritis triad

conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis
"can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree"

4

burkitt's lymphoma

t(8;14) translocation
c-myc activation
"starry sky"

5

mantle cell lymphoma

t(11;14) translocation
cyclin D1 activation

6

follicular lymphoma

t(14;18) translocation
bcl-2 overexpression

7

M3 type of AML

t(15;17)
responsive to all-trans retinoic acid

8

CML

t(9;22)
bcr-abl fusion

9

macroorchidism found mainly in?

Fragile X synd

10

CGG repeats

Fragile X synd

11

GAA repeats

Freidreich's ataxia

12

CAG repeats

Huntington's dz

13

CTG repeats

Myotonic dystrophy

14

VHL dz

hemangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla
bilat Renal cell carcinoma
deletion of VHL gene (TS) on chrom 3
constitutive expression of HIF (TF) and activation of angiogenic growth factors

15

what passes through the cavernous sinus?

CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI (aka nerves that control EOM + V1, V2)
postganglionic sympathetic fibers

16

only leukemia w/o lymphadenopathy?

Hairy cell leukemia

17

coagulative necrosis seen in?

heart, liver, kidney

18

liquefactive necrosis seen in?

brain, bacterial abscess, pleural effusion

19

caseous necrosis seen in?

TB, systemic fungal infection

20

fatty necrosis seen in?

peripancreatic fat (saponification via lipase)

21

fibrinoid necrosis seen in?

blood vessels

22

gangrenous necrosis seen in?

dry (ischemic coagulative)
wet (w/ bacteria)
common in limbs + GI tracts

23

difference b/w apoptosis and necrosis?

inflammation in necrosis only

24

hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affects?

pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells

25

hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock signs

low-output failure
increased TPR
low cardiac output
cold, clammy pt (vasoconstriction)

26

septic shock signs

high-output failure
decreased TPR
dilated arterioles, high venous return
hot patient (vasodilation)

27

free radical pathologies

Carbon tetrachloride --> liver necrosis (fatty change)
Acetaminophen overdose --> fulminant hepatitis
Iron overload --> hemochromatosis
Reperfusion after anoxia esp after thrombolytic therapy

"take good CAIR to avoid ROS damage"

28

transudate features

hyPOcellular
protein POOR
spec gravity <1.012
caused by: increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure, Na retention

29

exudate features

cellular
protein RICH
spec grav >1.012
due to: lymphocytic obstruction, inflamm

30

hypertrophic scar collagen?

type I

31

keloid collagen?

type III

32

DECREASED ESR?

sickle cell (altered shape)
polycythemia (too many)
CHF

33

benign/malignant tumor of the epithelium

adenoma, papilloma/adenocarcinoma, papillary carcinoma

34

benign/malignant tumor of blood vessels

hemangioma/angiosarcoma

35

benign/malignant tumor of smooth muscle

leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma

36

benign/malignant tumor of striated muscle

rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma

37

benign/malignant tumor of CT

fibroma/fibrosarcoma

38

benign/malignant tumor of bone

osteoma/osteosarcoma

39

benign/malignant tumor of fat

lipoma/liposarcoma

40

malignant tumor of blood cells

lymphoma, leukemia

41

things ending in -sarcoma + lymphomas, leukemias are of what origin?

mesenchymal

42

brain metastases mostly from?

lung then breast cancers
50% brain tumors = from metastasis

43

liver metastasis mostly from?

colon cancer

44

bone metastasis mostly from?

prostate and breast cancer
tumor predilection for axial skeleton

45

psammoma bodies seen in?

Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid
Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
Meningioma
Malignant mesothelioma

"PSaMMoma"

46

Down synd associated cancer?

ALL, AML

("we ALL fall DOWN")

47

xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism associated cancer?

melanoma
basal cell carcinoma of skin
**squamous cell carcinoma of skin (especially this)

48

chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants associated cancer?

gastric adenocarcinoma

49

tuberous sclerosis associated cancer?

Giant cell astrocytoma
Renal angiomyolipoma
cardiac rhabdomyoma

50

actinic keratosis associated cancer?

squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

51

barrett esophagus (chronic GI reflux) associated cancer?

esophageal adenocarcinoma

52

plummer-vinson synd (decreased iron) associated cancer?

squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

53

cirrhosis associated cancer?

HCC

54

ulcerative colitis associated cancer?

colonic adenocarcinoma

55

paget's disease of bone associated cancer?

secondary osteosarcoma
fibrosarcoma

56

immunodeficiency states associated cancer?

malignant lymphomas

57

AIDS associated cancer?

aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's)
Kaposi's sarcoma

58

autoimmune diseases associated cancer?

lymphoma

59

acanthosis nigracans associated cancer?

visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, uterus)

60

dysplastic nevus associated cancer?

malignant melanoma

61

radiation exposure associated cancer?

leukemia
sarcoma
papillary thyroid cancer
breast cancer

62

what is needed for viability in Tricuspid atresia?

both ASD + VSD

63

tearing chest pain radiating to back; dx?

aortic dissection

64

what are the large vessel vasculitis (involving aorta/major branches)?

temporal (giant cell) arteritis
takayasu's arteritis

65

what are the medium-vessel vasculitis (muscular arteries)?

Polyarteritis nodosa
Kawasaki disease
Buerger's dz (thromboangiitis obliterans)

66

what are the small-vessel vasculitis (arterioles, capillaries, venules)?

Microscopic polyangiitis
Wegener's granulomatosus
Churg-Strauss synd
Henoch-Schonlein purpura

67

pheochromocytomas associated w/?

NF1
MEN 2A, 2B
VHL disease

68

triad of Wiskott-Aldrich synd

thrombocytopenic purpura
recurrent infections
eczema

69

hemolytic uremic synd (HUS)?

thrombocytopenia
acute renal failure
microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

70

defect in chronic granulomatous dz

lack of NADPH oxidase (absent respiratory burst in neutrophils)

71

treacher-collins synd ass w/ which branchial arch?

1st arch neural crest fails to migrate

72

3 impt causes of polyuria and polydipsia

DM, diabetes insipidus, primary (psychogenic) polydipsia

73

irrev cell injury caused by?

Ca influx
damage to plasma membrane
damage to nucleus
rupture of lysosome
mitochondrial permeability

74

fragile X synd ass w/ what gene mutation?

FMR1

75

common feature seen in macrocytic (megaloblastic) anemia?

hypersegmented neutrophils

76

factor VIII inhibitors ass w/?

birth
chlorpromazine tx
treating hemophilia A w/ factor VIII

77

factor V inhibitor ass w/?

streptomycin
aminoglycosides

78

factor XIII inhibitor ass w/?

INH tx

79

what antibody produces false positive syphilis (VDRL) test?

anti-cardiolipin

80

carcinoids derived from what cells?

Kulchitsky cells

81

2 lung tumors w/ neurosecretory granules?

small cell
bronchial carcinoid

82

lab findings in Down synd

DECREASED AFP, estriol
INCREASED b-hCG, inhibin A
US shows increased nuchal translucency

83

lab findings in Edwards synd

trisomy 18
DECREASED AFP, b-hCG, estriol
normal inhibin A

84

lab findings in Patau's synd

Trisomy 13
DON'T USE QUAD SCREEN
DECREASED free b-hCG, PAPP-A
INCREASED nuchal translucency

85

lab findings in Klinefelter's synd

decreased inhibin A --> increased FSH (bc of dygenesis of seminiferous tubules)
increased LH --> increased estrogen (bc of abnormal Leydig cell function)

86

lab findings in Turner's synd

decreased estrogen --> increased LH + FSH
**menopause before menarche

87

gout crystals?

negatively birefringent needle-shaped crystals

88

pseudogout crystals?

positively birefringent rhombus-shaped crystals

89

organs w/ dual blood supply

liver (portal v. and hepatic a.)
lungs
intestine

90

2 most impt factors in angiogenesis

VEGF, FGF